Wine TestBot VMs

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Revision as of 10:35, 30 September 2022 by FrancoisGouget (talk | contribs) (Add instructions for setting up a Windows 11 QEmu VM)
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WineTestBot VMs

This page describes the new WineTestBot VMs and how they are configured.

Windows 11

The normal way to create a Windows 11 VM would be to set it up with UEFI (ovmf), secure boot and a TPM (swtpm-tools). There are a couple catches:

  • Guides typically recommend using OVMF_CODE.fd but it has been replaced by OVMF_CODE_4M.fd (same thing just larger firmware).
  • On Debian it may be necessary to fix the permissions of a couple of swtpm files. But then you may be able to avoid this step by restarting Libvirt or rebooting.
chown tss /var/lib/swtpm-localca/.lock.swtpm-localca
chown tss /var/lib/swtpm-localca/signkey.pem
  • Setting up the TPM can be done in the virt-manager GUI, there is no need to manually edit the XML file.

However there is a blocker that prevents using this approach for the TestBot: Libvirt does not support taking snapshots of UEFI VMs, whether live or not. More precisely internal qcow2 snapshots, the only type supported by Libvirt, are incompatible with UEFI. The QEmu developers won't fix that and instead recommend using external snapshots. But that requires a lot of work to be supported in Libvirt. Currently it would be possible to create an external disk-only snapshot by changing the TestBot's Libvirt code but it would not be possible to restore it without running QEmu manually (i.e. give up on the snapshot VM XML description file and Libvirt's remote access support). So that rules out this approach.

So instead use Rufus to remove the UEFI, secure boot, and TPM requirements. Start with a preexisting Windows VM:

  • Download the Windows 11 ISO and attach it to the VM's CDROM drive.
  • Add a 32 GB disk using USB as the disk controller (otherwise Rufus will not find that disk).
  • Pick MBR as the partitioning scheme. Verify that the target system is UEFI *or Bios*.
  • Click on Start and then select the options to disable the secure boot and TPM checks.
  • You may also ask Rufus to create a local user account matching the one you are currently using. This may avoid having to use an online Microsoft account.
  • Let Rufus continue and start grinding them coffee beans.
  • Once done power off the VM and remove the USB drive.

When creating the Windows 11 VM:

  • Connect the Virtio drivers ISO to the VM's CDROM drive.
  • Add the disk image created by Rufus to the VM, preferably still as a USB drive to limit drive letter assignment issues.
  • Adjust the boot order so that the USB drive comes first.
  • Add a Virtio SCSI storage driver and set the main disk to SCSI.
  • Adjust other peripherals to virtio as desired.
  • During installation tell Windows to look for drivers on the CDROM drive.
  • Once the installation is done remove the USB drive and optionally move the CDROM to SCSI.
  • On the Windows first boot start the Device Manager and install the drivers from the Virtio ISO for all unrecognized devices and also upgrade the display driver.

You can also find various configuration tidbits to optimize the QEmu configuration for Windows 11 on Kevin Locke's blog.



Here is a list of libvirt bugs relevant to the WineTestBot:

  • Libvirt bug 910711 - snapshot-revert causes spurious hardware mismatch errors
  • This may actually be a QEMU bug as it's the switch from QEMU 1.1.2 to 1.3.90 which seems to trigger this issue.
  • virt-manager bug 912810 - VM display is garbled if in 16-bpp


Here is a list of QEMU / KVM bugs relevant to the WineTestBot:

Spice QXL driver

Here is a list of the Spice QXL driver bugs relevant to the WineTestBot:

VM hardware and drivers

Compatibility tables


Windows ac97 es1370 ich6 sb16
2000 ok broken (1) no driver broken (2)
XP 52 test failures 60 test failures no driver broken (3)
2003 ok no driver no driver no driver
Vista ok 3 test failures no driver no driver
Vista 64-bit no driver no driver broken (4) no driver
2008 64-bit no driver no driver broken (5) no driver
7 no driver no driver ok no driver
7 64-bit no driver no driver ok no driver


  1. With the es1370 driver dsound:capture causes Windows 2000 to freeze.
  2. Windows 2000 does not detect the Sound Blaster 16 card but its driver can be installed manually. However the driver then fails to load with code 10.
  3. Windows XP does not detect the PCI Sound Blaster 16 card but its driver can be installed manually. However that then breaks the network cards (rtl8139, e1000 and virtio).
  4. The High Definition Audio Device driver (6.0.6000.16386) fails to load with code 10.
  5. The High Definition Audio Device driver (6.0.6001.18000) fails to load with code 10.
  6. pcspk does not count as a sound card.


Windows cirrus qxl vga vmvga
2000 317 test failures vga fallback (1) vga fallback (1) vga fallback (1)
XP 236 test failures 117 test failures (2) empty driver name ok
2003 ok (5, 7) ok ok ok (5)
Vista vga fallback; 234 test failures ok (2) ok ok (3)
Vista 64-bit vga fallback; 233 test failures 1 test failure ok ok (4)
2008 64-bit vga fallback; 233 test failures broken (6) ok ok (4)
7 vga fallback; 234 test failures ok (2) ok ok (4)
7 64-bit vga fallback; 234 test failures ok (2) ok ok (4)


  1. The Windows 2000 fallback driver only support the standard VGA mode: 640x480x4.
  2. Using the 'Red Hat QXL GPU' driver.
  3. Using the 'VMware SVGA II' XPDM driver from VMware Tools 9.0.1-913578.
  4. Using the 'VMware SVGA II' XPDM driver from VMware Tools 8.3.17-870839.
  5. Using the default VGA driver.
  6. The 'Red Hat QXL GPU' driver fails to load with code 39.
  7. Operates in 24bpp only.
  8. None of the Windows versions has a xen driver.

Network card

Windows e1000 ne2k_pci pcnet rtl8139 virtio
2000 no driver ok (1) ok crash (2) no driver
XP no driver ok ok ok 1 test failure
2003 ok ok ok ok ???
Vista 64-bit ok no driver no driver ok 1 test failure
2008 64-bit ok no driver no driver ok 1 test failure
7 ok no driver no driver ok 1 test failure


  1. With the ne2k_pci card network transfers cause high CPU usage and are slow (~10Mbps).
  2. The rtl8139 card causes Windows 2000 to crash on startup.


Make sure the virtual CPU topology is compatible with the Windows version: at the time of writing the Home edition can only use one processor and the Pro edition two. So configure a Home edition VM as a single processor system with either two cores or two threads, rather than as a dual-processor system.


Windows 10 needs the High Precision Event Timer (HPET) otherwise it causes a high CPU usage on the host. Use virsh edit and in the <clock> section add:

  <timer name='hpet' present='yes'/>

Virtual disk

Some tests require reasonable disk performance otherwise they time out (in particular the msi tests). For these we need to make sure to use QEMU's paravirtualized 'virtio' disk. The driver comes from KVM/Fedora: VirtIO drivers for Windows from Fedora.

QXL graphics driver

Some VMs use the QXL paravirtualized graphics card together with the driver from Spice's Windows Guest Tools pack.

  • Mount spice-guest-tools-0.3.iso
  • Then run spice-guest-tools-0.3.exe from the CD to install the driver.
  • Windows will warn about each driver because they are unsigned but will still use any you install.

Also on Windows Vista Spice's Windows Guest Tools pack (0.3) does not install the QXL driver. It is possible to work around that by manually installing the driver directly from c:\Program Files\SPICE Guest Tools\drivers. One can either pick the Windows XP or Windows 7 one, they seem to behave identically. However the problem is that this immediately shows a very visible transparency/alpha blending issue in the Desktop Gadgets area (see (bug 61124). That does not seem to impact the tests though that configuration has a bunch of d3d8:device test failures like on Windows XP.

VMware graphics driver

QEMU can also emulate the paravirtualized VMware graphics card. However so far the VMware graphics driver has not shown to reduce the number failing tests or to improve the performance. Thus it is not used for now. Still here is how to install the driver on Windows 7 for further testing.

  • These instructions are based on the I roughly followed 1 to comment in a discussion thread on Linux KVM.
  • First go to VMware's site to download a VMware Tools ISO.
  • Do not pick the latest VMware version because it only works with the VMware 7 hardware which QEMU 1.1.2 does not implement. The driver would install but then fail to load with error code 43 when it does not recognize the graphics card.
  • Pick the ISO from the esx/4.1latest/windows directory which corresponds to VMware Tools 8.3.17.
  • Mount the ISO and run 'setup.exe /a' and extract the drivers to c:\vmwaretools.
  • Then right-click on the desktop background, and follow this sequence of buttons Screen Resolution -> Advanced Settings -> Properties -> Driver -> Update Driver -> Browse my computer.
  • Pick the 'C:\vmwaretools\Common\VMware\Drivers\video' directory (or Common64 for the 64-bit drivers). This will install the 'VMware SVGA II' driver. This is in fact the legacy XPDM driver but it will still work in Windows 7.
  • Do not pick the 'wddm_video' directory! It contains the same 'VMware SVGA 3D' that requires the VMware 7 hardware that is not supported by QEMU.
  • Note that this procedure will not work in Windows 8 because it completely dropped support for the XPDM drivers. This means it is impossible to use the VMware drivers with QEMU on Windows 8.

Network card

The paravirtualized 'Virtio' network card causes errors (see Bug 1119281). Thus the VMs use either the e1000 or rtl8139 network cards with the standard Windows drivers.

Windows configuration

  • Installing unsigned drivers
The Virtio drivers are unsigned and some Windows versions may require special steps to allow installing them.
Windows 7 may need updates > SP1 before it will allow installing unsigned drivers. Then there are two options.
Run gpedit.msc and in 'User Configuration' -> 'Administrative Templates' -> 'System' -> 'Driver Installation' look for 'Code Signing for Device Drivers' and set it to Enabled and either Warn or Ignore.
Or on the command line run:
bcdedit.exe -set loadoptions DDISABLE_INTEGRITY_CHECKS
bcdedit.exe -set TESTSIGNING ON
# To undo
bcdedit.exe -deletevalue DDISABLE_INTEGRITY_CHECKS
bcdedit.exe -deletevalue TESTSIGNING
  • Start Internet Explorer and answer the initial configuration questions.
Rationale: It is not known if leaving these questions unanswered would modify the test results. However this would not correspond to any configuration that Windows applications would expect so in doubt it's best to answer them with something as close as possible to 'default' answers.
Windows 10: Run iexplore.exe
  • Disable the Internet Explorer automatic updates.
Starting with version 10 Internet Explorer has its own independent update mechanism. The rationale for disabling it is the same as for Windows Update.
  • Disable screensaver.
Rationale: The VMs can remain idle for a long time so that the screensaver would possibly be running before before we start the tests. The screensaver could also trigger during the long WineTest.exe runs. In either case it seems better nor to risk having them interfere. Also we don't want half a dozen VMs to waste time on animated screensavers while waiting for a test to run.
Windows 7: Control Panel -> Hardware and Sound -> Change when the computer sleeps
Windows 10: Settings -> System -> Power & sleep
  • Disable disk and computer suspend.
Rationale: The VMs may remain idle for quite some time waiting for a test to run. We would not want them to 'suspend to RAM' as it's not clear they would successfully wake up when called upon. Similarly suspending the disk seems pointless and just asking for trouble.
  • Disable Windows update.
Rationale: After each test the VM is restored to a clean snapshot. So any work done by the Windows update process would be lost at that point. So the only effect it could have is messing the test environment and wasting computing resources.
Windows 10: Disabling Windows Update can only be done by putting the network connection in metered mode.
Early Windows 10: Note that Windows 10 1607 and older does not have a GUI to do this for an ethernet connection. But it can be done through the registry:
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\NetworkList\DefaultMediaCost]
Right-Click on DefaultMediaCost -> Properties -> Advanced -> Change Owner -> Administrators -> OK
Check "Replace owner on subcontainers and objects" -> OK
Select Administrators -> Check "Full Control" -> OK
Ethernet = dword:2.
You can optionally change the DefaultMediaCost permissions and ownership to "NT Service\TrustedInstaller".
  • Disable Delivery Optimization.
Rationale: It seems like this service can use network bandwidth to exchange windows update data with the other Windows machines on the LAN even when Windows update is disabled. To do so, look for it near the Windows Update settings.
Windows 10: Settings -> Update & Security -> Delivery Optimization
  • Disable restore points.
Rationale: Our MSI tests normally disable restore points and so should not need this. However restore points are redundant with the VM snapshots and just waste disk space.
Windows 7/10: Run control -> Search Advanced -> View advanced system settings -> System Protection
  • Reduce the boot delay.
Rationale: When Windows crashes it waits for 30 seconds before rebooting. This may cause the Task to time out before the TestBot server has time to reconnect to the VM to retrieve the pre-crash test report.
Run control -> Search Advanced -> View advanced system settings -> Startup and Recovery -> reduce the timeout to 5 seconds or so
  • Disable search indexing.
Rationale: Any indexing will have to be redone when the VM is reverted to the clean snapshot after the test. So all it can do is trash the disk, likely causing tests to time out.
Windows 7/10: Run services.msc -> 'Windows Search' and switch it from 'Automatic (Delayed)' to 'Disabled'.
  • Disable defragmentation.
Rationale: Windows 10 regularly defragments the disk. Even though this is a low priority task it can slow down disk I/O and increase disk usage on the host.
Windows 10: Right-click on the drive -> Properties -> Tools -> Optimize -> Disable Scheduled optimization.
  • Disable OneDrive.
Rationale: OneDrive would normally not be configured anyway and thus should not be using much resources. But it typically starts up on boot and can pop up Windows at inopportune times.
Windows 10: Right-click on the OneDrive systray icon, and tell it not to run on startup.
or (64-bit) run %SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\OneDriveSetup.exe /uninstall
or (32-bit) run %SystemRoot%\System32\OneDriveSetup.exe /uninstall
  • Disable time of last access.
Rationale: Keeping track of the time of last access requires additional writes.
Windows 10: fsutil behavior set disablelastaccess 1
  • Disable Windows Defender.
Rationale: Windows Defender sometimes mistakenly flags WineTest.exe as being infected. Also when restoring an old snapshot it may start a full disk scan which slows the tests.
Windows 10: Set [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows Defender] DisableAntiSpyware=dword:1
Note that recent Windows Defender versions automatically reset this setting and re-enable themselves. This can be overridden through the Group Policy but only on Professional and Enterprise versions.
Windows 10: Prevent Windows Defender from scanning files in the folder where WineTest is downloaded.
Settings -> Update & Security -> Windows Security -> Virus & threat protection -> Manage settings -> Add or remove exclusions -> Add an exclusion
  • Disable Windows Defender notifications.
Rationale: If Windows Defender cannot be completely disabled (e.g. on the latest Windows 10), disable its most annoying notifications to avoid windows popping up during the user32:msg tests.
Windows 10: Settings -> Update & Security -> Windows Security -> Open Windows Security Virus & threat protection -> Manage settings -> Change notification settings
  • Hide the Windows 10 upgrade notifications and application ads.
Rationale: Avoid windows popping up during the user32:msg tests.
Windows 10: Setting -> System -> Notifications & actions
  • In Notifications & Actions: uncheck Windows experience, setup, tips & tricks
  • In Get notifications from these senders: uncheck Suggested and Backup settings
  • Disable Windows Telemetry and the Customer Experience Improvement Program.
One may want to avoid KB3068708, KB3075249, KB3080149. Also, in the Task Scheduler, disable the tasks in Microsoft > Windows
  • Application Experience
Microsoft Compatibility Appraiser (generates lots of I/O)
  • Customer Experience Improvement Program.
Rationale: They involve tasks that get run on boot and cause a significant amount of disk activity.
  • Activate Windows!
Preferably once the hardware configuration is pretty much settled down to avoid having to reactivate again.
Windows 10: Settings -> Update & Security -> Activation
  • Lower the volume.
Rationale: To preserve the ears of whoever is going to connect to the VM to perform maintenance.
  • Reset TestAgentd's reboot count
Last thing to do before the snapshot. Delete

The following configuration configuration options are not really important for the WineTestBot VMs but can help optimize real Windows partitions used for running WineTest.

  • Configure auto-login.
Rationale: This is necessary to get the tests to start automatically on boot.
Windows 10: control userpasswords2 + uncheck "Users must enter a user name and password"
or netplwiz + uncheck "Users must enter a user name and password"
or [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon]
DefaultUserName = string:<username>
DefaultPassword = string:<password>
AutoAdminLogon = string:"1"
  • Disable hibernation.
Rationale: This helps save a lot of space when taking the image of the Windows partition.
Windows 10: powercfg -h off
  • Disable swap.
Rationale: This helps save a lot of space when taking the image of the Windows partition.
Windows 7/10: Run control -> Search Advanced -> View advanced system settings -> Performance Settings -> Advanced
Use 'dir /A:H c:\' to check that there is no pagefile.sys file.

See also VMware's recommendations to Optimize Windows Guest Operating System Performance.

Missing Windows dlls

Even with the latest Windows version and all updates some of the dlls Wine tests are missing. This section describes the recommended way to install them.


Install the 8.0.50727.6195 x86/x64 Visual C++ 2005 redistributables (see Chocolatey vcredist2005).

Note that atl80.dll is not found in c:\Windows\System32. Instead look for this set of dlls in c:\Windows\WinSxS\*.vc80.*, and optionally check the compatible versions in c:\Windows\WinSxS\Manifests\*.vc80.atl*.manifest.

atl90, msvcp90, msvcr90

Install the x86/x64 Visual C++ 2008 redistributables (see Chocolatey vcredist2008).

Note that these libraries are not found in c:\Windows\System32. Instead look for this set of dlls in c:\Windows\WinSxS\*.vc90.*, and optionally check the compatible versions in c:\Windows\WinSxS\Manifests\*.vc90.atl*.manifest.

atl100, msvcp100, msvcr100

Install the 10.0.40219.325 x86/x64 Visual C++ 2010 redistributables (see Chocolatey vcredist2010).

atl110, msvcp110, msvcr110

Install the 11.0.51106.1 x86/x64 Visual C++ 2012 redistributables (see Chocolatey vcredist2012).

See also the original Microsoft download page for the older Visual C++ 2012 Update 4 redistributable.

msvcp120, msvcr120

Install the 12.0.40660.0 x86/x64 Visual C++ 2013 redistributables (see Chocolatey vcredist2013).

See also the original Microsoft download page for the older Visual C++ 2013 redistributable.

msvcp140, msvcr140, ucrtbase

Install the 14.29.30037 x86/x64 Visual C++ 2015 redistributables (see Chocolatey vcredist140).

See also the Microsoft download page for the latest Visual C++ redistributables.


It may look like this file is missing when running the 64-bit tests on a 64-bit version of Windows. This is because Direct3D 8 is deprecated and no 64-bit support for it is provided by Windows.

d3dcompiler_43, d3dx9_36, xinput1_3

To get these dlls it is necessary to install the optional Direct X components, even on the latest Windows systems.

WARNING: Uncheck the Bing Bar installation!


If these are missing on a 32-bit system install the optional Direct X components as documented above.

It may look like this file is missing when running the 64-bit tests on a 64-bit version of Windows. FIXME: Why? Is it obsolete like Direct3D 8?

dmband, dmime, dplayx

If these are missing on a 32-bit system install the optional Direct X components as documented above.

It may look like these files are missing when running the 64-bit tests on a 64-bit version of Windows. This is because DirectMusic and DirectPlay are deprecated and no 64-bit support for them is provided by Windows.

localspl, localui, spoolss



MSXML4 SP3 is available here. You may also want to apply the KB973685 update. Note that there is no 64-bit version.


Wine implements the msxml6 dll but has no test for it yet. Still one can get MSXML6 SP1 here.




It may look like this file is missing when running the 32-bit tests on a 64-bit Windows system. This is because 64-bit Windows only has the 64-bit version of this file.

xaudio2_7, xaudio2_8

This is the lastest audio API for Windows 7+. It may be installed through this download.

Unix configuration

  • Use the fvwm window manager
Rationale: Most window managers are buggy, in particular the GNOME and KDE ones, and cause some tests to fail or even crash. fvwm is the one known 'good' windows manager.
  • Use a Windows-compatible fvwm configuration
Rationale: Some tests verify that Windows applications get the right sequence of messages when windows lose/gain focus, etc. The sequence of messages depends in part on the window manager and cannot be right if the Unix window manager does not behave like Windows does, particularly wrt. focus-follows-mouse, transient window decorations, etc.
# The default fvwm config is pretty long and has tons of features of
# dubious relevance for a test environment:
# - It has a sidebar which may be causing the ole32:dragdrop test to fail.
# - The virtual desktops are just an annoyance when accessing the machine
#   through VNC.
# So this configuration file completely replaces the default one and is
# built from scratch with only the settings that have been deemed necessary.

# fvwm's default SloppyFocus policy does not match the Windows behavior and
# causes a lot of failures. So use ClickToFocus instead which best matches the
# Windows behavior.
Style * ClickToFocus

# DontStackTransientParent is needed to avoid some failures in user32:win.
# See
Style * DontStackTransientParent

# Wine uses MWM hints to get the proper window behavior.
# So tell fvwm to obey these hints.
Style * MwmDecor

# DecorateTransient does not seem to be needed for the tests but gives a proper
# border to transient Windows like File Open dialogs. This makes them much more
# usable and better matches the Windows behavior.
Style * DecorateTransient

# Don't use virtual desktops to avoid aggravation when the mouse goes out of
# the VNC window.
DesktopSize 1x1

  • Install ttf-mscorefonts-installer (non-free) or fonts-liberation
Rationale: No Windows system would ship without a base set of fonts of various families (Serif, Sans Serif). Since the lack of such fonts is not a valid Windows configuration, it is reasonable for tests (e.g. gdiplus:font) to depend on them and fail if they are missing. Furthermore ttf-mscorefonts-installer is preferred because it provides Arial which some tests need (but they skip if Arial is missing).