# Wine Developer's Guide/Kernel modules

This section covers the kernel modules. As already stated, Wine implements the NT architecture, hence provides NTDLL for the core kernel functions, and KERNEL32, which is the implementation of the basis of the Win32 subsystem, on top of NTDLL.

This chapter is made of two types of material (depending of their point of view). Some items will be tackled from a global point of view and then, when needed, explaining the split of work between NTDLL and KERNEL32; some others will be tackled from a DLL point of view (NTDLL or KERNEL32). The choice is made so that the output is more readable and understandable. At least, that's the intent (sigh).

## 1 The Wine initialization process

Wine has a rather complex startup procedure, so unlike many programs the best place to begin exploring the code-base is not in fact at the main() function but instead at some of the more straightforward DLLs that exist on the periphery such as MSI, the widget library (in USER and COMCTL32) etc. The purpose of this section is to document and explain how Wine starts up from the moment the user runs wine myprogram.exe to the point at which myprogram gets control.

### 1.1 First Steps

The actual wine binary that the user runs does not do very much, in fact it is only responsible for checking the threading model in use (NPTL vs LinuxThreads) and then invoking a new binary which performs the next stage in the startup sequence. See the beginning of this chapter for more information on this check and why it's necessary. You can find this code in loader/glibc.c. The result of this check is an exec of wine, potentially (on Linux) via the preloader.

The Wine preloader is found in loader/preloader.c, and is required in order to impose a Win32 style address space layout upon the newly created Win32 process. The details of what this does is covered in the address space layout chapter. The preloader is a statically linked ELF binary which is passed the name of the actual Wine binary to run along with the arguments the user passed in from the command line. The preloader is an unusual program: it does not have a main() function. In standard ELF applications, the entry point is actually at a symbol named _start: this is provided by the standard gcc infrastructure and normally jumps to __libc_start_main() which initializes glibc before passing control to the main function as defined by the programmer.

The preloader takes control direct from the entry point for a few reasons. Firstly, it is required that glibc is not initialized twice: the result of such behavior is undefined and subject to change without notice. Secondly, it's possible that as part of initializing glibc, the address space layout could be changed - for instance, any call to malloc() will initialize a heap arena which modifies the VM mappings. Finally, glibc does not return to _start() at any point, so by reusing it we avoid the need to recreate the ELF bootstrap stack (env, argv, auxiliary array etc).

One of the last things the preloader does before jumping into the dynamic linker is scan the symbol table of the loaded Wine binary and set the value of a global variable directly: this is a more efficient way of passing information to the main Wine program than flattening the data structures into an environment variable or command line parameter then unpacking it on the other side, but it achieves pretty much the same thing. The global variable set points to the preload descriptor table, which contains the VMA regions protected by the preloader. This allows Wine to unmap them once the dynamic linker has been run, so leaving gaps we can initialize properly later on.

### 1.2 Starting the emulator

The process of starting up the emulator itself is mostly one of chaining through various initializer functions defined in the core libraries and DLLs: libwine, then NTDLL, then KERNEL32.

The wine binary has a main() function, defined in loader/main.c, so after the preloader has run we start here. This passes the information provided by the preloader into libwine and then calls wine_init(), defined in libs/wine/loader.c. This is where the emulation really starts: wine_init() can, with the correct preparation, be called from programs other than the wine loader itself.

wine_init() does some very basic setup tasks such as initializing the debugging infrastructure, yet more address space manipulation (see the information on the 4G/4G VM split in the address space chapter), before loading NTDLL - the core of both Wine and the Windows NT series - and jumping to the __wine_process_init() function defined in dlls/ntdll/loader.c

This function is responsible for initializing the primary Win32 environment. In thread_init(), it sets up the TEB, the wineserver connection for the main thread and the process heap. See the beginning of this chapter for more information on this.

Finally, it loads and jumps to __wine_kernel_init() in KERNEL32.DLL: this is defined in dlls/kernel32/process.c. This is where the bulk of the work is done. The KERNEL32 initialization code retrieves the startup info for the process from the server, initializes the registry, sets up the drive mapping system and locale data, then begins loading the requested application itself. Each process has a STARTUPINFO block that can be passed into CreateProcess specifying various things like how the first window should be displayed: this is sent to the new process via the wineserver.

After determining the type of file given to Wine by the user (a Win32 EXE file, a Win16 EXE, a Winelib app etc), the program is loaded into memory (which may involve loading and initializing other DLLs, the bulk of Wines startup code), before control reaches the end of __wine_kernel_init(). This function ends with the new process stack being initialized, and start_process being called on the new stack. Nearly there!

The final element of initializing Wine is starting the newly loaded program itself. start_process() sets up the SEH backstop handler, calls LdrInitializeThunk() which performs the last part of the process initialization (such as performing relocations and calling the DllMain() with PROCESS_ATTACH), grabs the entry point of the executable and then on this line:

ExitProcess( entry( peb ) );


... jumps to the entry point of the program. At this point the users program is running and the API provided by Wine is ready to be used. When entry returns, the ExitProcess API will be used to initialize a graceful shutdown.

## 2 Detailed memory management

As already explained in a previous chapter (see Memory management for details), Wine creates every 32-bit Windows process in its own 32-bit address space. Wine also tries to map at the relevant addresses what Windows would do. There are however a few nasty bits to look at.

### 2.1 Implementation

Wine (with a bit of black magic) is able to map the main module at it's desired address (likely 0x400000), to create the process heap, its stack (as a Windows executable can ask for a specific stack size), Wine simply use the initial stack of the ELF executable for its initialisation, but creates a new stack (as a Win32 one) for the main thread of the executable. Wine also tries to map all native DLLs at their desired address, so that no relocation has to be performed.

Wine also implements the shared heap so native win9x DLLs can be used. This heap is always created at the SYSTEM_HEAP_BASE address or 0x80000000 and defaults to 16 megabytes in size.

There are a few other magic locations. The bottom 64k of memory is deliberately left unmapped to catch null pointer dereferences. The region from 64k to 1mb+64k are reserved for DOS compatibility and contain various DOS data structures. Finally, the address space also contains mappings for the Wine binary itself, any native libraries Wine is using, the glibc malloc arena and so on.

### 2.2 Laying out the address space

Up until about the start of 2004, the Linux address space very much resembled the Windows 9x layout: the kernel sat in the top gigabyte, the bottom pages were unmapped to catch null pointer dereferences, and the rest was free. The kernels mmap algorithm was predictable: it would start by mapping files at low addresses and work up from there.

The development of a series of new low level patches violated many of these assumptions, and resulted in Wine needing to force the Win32 address space layout upon the system. This section looks at why and how this is done.

The exec-shield patch increases security by randomizing the kernels mmap algorithms. Rather than consistently choosing the same addresses given the same sequence of requests, the kernel will now choose randomized addresses. Because the Linux dynamic linker (ld-linux.so.2) loads DSOs into memory by using mmap, this means that DSOs are no longer loaded at predictable addresses, so making it harder to attack software by using buffer overflows. It also attempts to relocate certain binaries into a special low area of memory known as the ASCII armor so making it harder to jump into them when using string based attacks.

Prelink is a technology that enhances startup times by precalculating ELF global offset tables then saving the results inside the native binaries themselves. By grid fitting each DSO into the address space, the dynamic linker does not have to perform as many relocations so allowing applications that heavily rely on dynamic linkage to be loaded into memory much quicker. Complex C++ applications such as Mozilla, OpenOffice and KDE can especially benefit from this technique.

The 4G VM split patch was developed by Ingo Molnar. It gives the Linux kernel its own address space, thereby allowing processes to access the maximum addressable amount of memory on a 32-bit machine: 4 gigabytes. It allows people with lots of RAM to fully utilise that in any given process at the cost of performance: the reason behind giving the kernel a part of each processes address space was to avoid the overhead of switching on each syscall.

Each of these changes alter the address space in a way incompatible with Windows. Prelink and exec-shield mean that the libraries Wine uses can be placed at any point in the address space: typically this meant that a library was sitting in the region that the EXE you wanted to run had to be loaded (remember that unlike DLLs, EXE files cannot be moved around in memory). The 4G VM split means that programs could receive pointers to the top gigabyte of address space which some are not prepared for (they may store extra information in the high bits of a pointer, for instance). In particular, in combination with exec-shield this one is especially deadly as it's possible the process heap could be allocated beyond ADDRESS_SPACE_LIMIT which causes Wine initialization to fail.

The solution to these problems is for Wine to reserve particular parts of the address space so that areas that we don't want the system to use will be avoided. We later on (re/de)allocate those areas as needed. One problem is that some of these mappings are put in place automatically by the dynamic linker: for instance any libraries that Wine is linked to (like libc, libwine, libpthread etc) will be mapped into memory before Wine even gets control. In order to solve that, Wine overrides the default ELF initialization sequence at a low level and reserves the needed areas by using direct syscalls into the kernel (i.e. without linking against any other code to do it) before restarting the standard initialization and letting the dynamic linker continue. This is referred to as the preloader and is found in loader/preloader.c.

Once the usual ELF boot sequence has been completed, some native libraries may well have been mapped above the 3gig limit: however, this doesn't matter as 3G is a Windows limit, not a Linux limit. We still have to prevent the system from allocating anything else above there (like the heap or other DLLs) though so Wine performs a binary search over the upper gig of address space in order to iteratively fill in the holes with MAP_NORESERVE mappings so the address space is allocated but the memory to actually back it is not. This code can be found in libs/wine/mmap.c:reserve_area.

## 3 Multi-processing in Wine

Let's take a closer look at the way Wine loads and run processes in memory.

### 3.1 Starting a process from command line

When starting a Wine process from command line (we'll get later on to the differences between NE, PE and Winelib executables), there are a couple of things Wine need to do first. A first executable is run to check the threading model of the underlying OS (see Multi-threading in Wine

Then Wine graps a few elements from the Unix world: the environment, the program arguments. Then the ntdll.dll.so is loaded into memory using the standard shared library dynamic loader. When loaded, NTDLL will mainly first create a decent Windows environment:

• create a PEB (Process Environment Block) and a TEB (Thread Environment Block).
• set up the connection to the Wine server - and eventually launching the Wine server if none runs
• create the process heap

Then Kernel32 is loaded (but now using the Windows dynamic loading capabilities) and a Wine specific entry point is called __wine_kernel_init. This function will actually handle all the logic of the process loading and execution, and will never return from it's call.

__wine_kernel_init will undergo the following tasks:

• initialization of program arguments from Unix program arguments
• lookup of executable in the file system
• If the file is not found, then an error is printed and the Wine loader stops.
• We'll cover the non-PE file type later on, so assume for now it's a PE file. The PE module is loaded in memory using the same mechanisms as for a native DLLs (mainly mapping the file data and code sections into memory, and handling relocation if needed). Note that the dependencies on the module are not resolved at this point.
• A new stack is created, which size is given in the PE header, and this stack is made the one of the running thread (which is still the only one in the process). The stack used at startup will no longer be used.
• Which this new stack, ntdll.LdrInitializeThunk is called which performs the remaining initialization parts, including resolving all the DLL imports on the PE module, and doing the init of the TLS slots.
• Control can now be passed to the EntryPoint of the PE module, which will let the executable run.

### 3.2 Creating a child process from a running process

The steps used are closely link to what is done in the previous case.

There are however a few points to look at a bit more closely. The inner implementation creates the child process using the fork() and exec() calls. This means that we don't need to check again for the threading model, we can use what the parent (or the grand-parent process...) started from command line has found.

The Win32 process creation allows to pass a lot of information between the parent and the child. This includes object handles, windows title, console parameters, environment strings... Wine makes use of both the standard Unix inheritance mechanisms (for environment for example) and the Wine server (to pass from parent to child a chunk of data containing the relevant information).

The previously described loading mechanism will check in the Wine server if such a chunk exists, and, if so, will perform the relevant initialization.

Some further synchronization is also put in place: a parent will wait until the child has started, or has failed. The Wine server is also used to perform those tasks.

### 3.3 Starting a Winelib process

Before going into the gory details, let's first go back to what a Winelib application is. It can be either a regular Unix executable, or a more specific Wine beast. This later form in fact creates two files for a given executable (say foo.exe). The first one, named foo will be a symbolic link to the Wine loader (wine). The second one, named foo.exe.so, is the equivalent of the .dll.so files we've already described for DLLs. As in Windows, an executable is, among other things, a module with its import and export information, as any DLL, it makes sense Wine uses the same mechanisms for loading native executables and DLLs.

When starting a Winelib application from the command line (say with foo arg1 arg2), the Unix shell will execute foo as a Unix executable. Since this is in fact the Wine loader, Wine will fire up. However, it will notice that it hasn't been started as wine but as foo, and hence, will try to load (using Unix shared library mechanism) the second file foo.exe.so. Wine will recognize a 32-bit module (with its descriptor) embedded in the shared library, and once the shared library loaded, it will proceed the same path as when loading a standard native PE executable.

Wine needs to implement this second form of executable in order to maintain the order of initialization of some elements in the executable. One particular issue is when dealing with global C++ objects. In standard Unix executable, the call of the constructor to such objects is stored in the specific section of the executable (.init not to name it). All constructors in this section are called before the main() or WinMain function is called. Creating a Wine executable using the first form mentionned above will let those constructors being called before Wine gets a chance to initialize itself. So, any constructor using a Windows API will fail, because Wine infrastructure isn't in place. The use of the second form for Winelib executables ensures that we do the initialization using the following steps:

• initialize the Wine infrastructure
• load the executable into memory
• handle the import sections for the executable
• call the global object constructors (if any). They now can properly call the Windows APIs
• call the executable entry point

The attentive reader would have noted that the resolution of imports for the executable is done, as for a DLL, when the executable/DLL descriptor is registered. However, this is done also by adding a specific constructor in the .init section. For the above describe scheme to function properly, this constructor must be the first constructor to be called, before all the other constructors, generated by the executable itself. The Wine build chain takes care of that, and also generating the executable/DLL descriptor for the Winelib executable.

This section will assume you understand the basics of multithreading. If not there are plenty of good tutorials available on the net to get you started.

Threading in Wine is somewhat complex due to several factors. The first is the advanced level of multithreading support provided by Windows - there are far more threading related constructs available in Win32 than the Linux equivalent (pthreads). The second is the need to be able to map Win32 threads to native Linux threads which provides us with benefits like having the kernel schedule them without our intervention. While it's possible to implement threading entirely without kernel support, doing so is not desirable on most platforms that Wine runs on.

### 4.1 Threading support in Win32

Win32 is an unusually thread friendly API. Not only is it entirely thread safe, but it provides many different facilities for working with threads. These range from the basics such as starting and stopping threads, to the extremely complex such as injecting threads into other processes and COM inter-thread marshalling.

One of the primary challenges of writing Wine code therefore is ensuring that all our DLLs are thread safe, free of race conditions and so on. This isn't simple - don't be afraid to ask if you aren't sure whether a piece of code is thread safe or not!

Win32 provides many different ways you can make your code thread safe however the most common are critical section and the interlocked functions. Critical sections are a type of mutex designed to protect a geographic area of code. If you don't want multiple threads running in a piece of code at once, you can protect them with calls to EnterCriticalSection() and LeaveCriticalSection(). The first call to EnterCriticalSection() by a thread will lock the section and continue without stopping. If another thread calls it then it will block until the original thread calls LeaveCriticalSection() again.

It is therefore vitally important that if you use critical sections to make some code thread-safe, that you check every possible codepath out of the code to ensure that any held sections are left. Code like this:

if (res != ERROR_SUCCESS) return res;


is extremely suspect in a function that also contains a call to EnterCriticalSection(). Be careful.

If a thread blocks while waiting for another thread to leave a critical section, you will see an error from the RtlpWaitForCriticalSection() function, along with a note of which thread is holding the lock. This only appears after a certain timeout, normally a few seconds. It's possible the thread holding the lock is just being really slow which is why Wine won't terminate the app like a non-checked build of Windows would, but the most common cause is that for some reason a thread forgot to call LeaveCriticalSection(), or died while holding the lock (perhaps because it was in turn waiting for another lock). This doesn't just happen in Wine code: a deadlock while waiting for a critical section could be due to a bug in the app triggered by a slight difference in the emulation.

Another popular mechanism available is the use of functions like InterlockedIncrement() and InterlockedExchange(). These make use of native CPU abilities to execute a single instruction while ensuring any other processors on the system cannot access memory, and allow you to do common operations like add/remove/check a variable in thread-safe code without holding a mutex. These are useful for reference counting especially in free-threaded (thread safe) COM objects.

Finally, the usage of TLS slots are also popular. TLS stands for thread-local storage, and is a set of slots scoped local to a thread which you can store pointers in. Look on MSDN for the TlsAlloc() function to learn more about the Win32 implementation of this. Essentially, the contents of a given slot will be different in each thread, so you can use this to store data that is only meaningful in the context of a single thread. On recent versions of Linux the __thread keyword provides a convenient interface to this functionality - a more portable API is exposed in the pthread library. However, these facilities are not used by Wine, rather, we implement Win32 TLS entirely ourselves.

### 4.2 The Win32 thread environment

All Win32 code, whether from a native EXE/DLL or in Wine itself, expects certain constructs to be present in its environment. This section explores what those constructs are and how Wine sets them up. The lack of this environment is one thing that makes it hard to use Wine code directly from standard Linux applications - in order to interact with Win32 code a thread must first be "adopted" by Wine.

The first thing Win32 code requires is the TEB or "Thread Environment Block". This is an internal (undocumented) Windows structure associated with every thread which stores a variety of things such as TLS slots, a pointer to the threads message queue, the last error code and so on. You can see the definition of the TEB in include/thread.h, or at least what we know of it so far. Being internal and subject to change, the layout of the TEB has had to be reverse engineered from scratch.

A pointer to the TEB is stored in the %fs register and can be accessed using NtCurrentTeb() from within Wine code. %fs actually stores a selector, and setting it therefore requires modifying the processes local descriptor table (LDT) - the code to do this is in lib/wine/ldt.c.

The TEB is required by nearly all Win32 code run in the Wine environment, as any wineserver RPC will use it, which in turn implies that any code which could possibly block for instance by using a critical section) needs it. The TEB also holds the SEH exception handler chain as the first element, so if disassembling you see code like this:

movl %esp, %fs:0


... then you are seeing the program set up an SEH handler frame. All threads must have at least one SEH entry, which normally points to the backstop handler which is ultimately responsible for popping up the all-too-familiar "This program has performed an illegal operation and will be terminated" message. On Wine we just drop straight into the debugger. A full description of SEH is out of the scope of this section, however there are some good articles in MSJ if you are interested.

All Win32-aware threads must have a wineserver connection. Many different APIs require the ability to communicate with the wineserver. In turn, the wineserver must be aware of Win32 threads in order to be able to accurately report information to other parts of the program and do things like route inter-thread messages, dispatch APCs (asynchronous procedure calls) and so on. Therefore a part of thread initialization is initializing the thread server-side. The result is not only correct information in the server, but a set of file descriptors the thread can use to communicate with the server - the request fd, reply fd and wait fd (used for blocking).

## 5 Structured Exception Handling

Structured Exception Handling (or SEH) is an implementation of exceptions inside the Windows core. It allows code written in different languages to throw exceptions across DLL boundaries, and Windows reports various errors like access violations by throwing them. This section looks at how it works, and how it's implemented in Wine.

### 5.1 How SEH works

SEH is based on embedding EXCEPTION_REGISTRATION_RECORD structures in the stack. Together they form a linked list rooted at offset zero in the TEB (see the threading section if you don't know what this is). A registration record points to a handler function, and when an exception is thrown the handlers are executed in turn. Each handler returns a code, and they can elect to either continue through the handler chain or it can handle the exception and then restart the program. This is referred to as unwinding the stack. After each handler is called it's popped off the chain.

Before the system begins unwinding the stack, it runs vectored handlers. This is an extension to SEH available in Windows XP, and allows registered functions to get a first chance to watch or deal with any exceptions thrown in the entire program, from any thread.

A thrown exception is represented by an EXCEPTION_RECORD structure. It consists of a code, flags, an address and an arbitrary number of DWORD parameters. Language runtimes can use these parameters to associate language-specific information with the exception.

Exceptions can be triggered by many things. They can be thrown explicitly by using the RaiseException API, or they can be triggered by a crash (i.e. translated from a signal). They may be used internally by a language runtime to implement language-specific exceptions. They can also be thrown across DCOM connections.

Visual C++ has various extensions to SEH which it uses to implement, e.g. object destruction on stack unwind as well as the ability to throw arbitrary types. The code for this is in dlls/msvcrt/except.c

### 5.2 Translating signals to exceptions

In Windows, compilers are expected to use the system exception interface, and the kernel itself uses the same interface to dynamically insert exceptions into a running program. By contrast on Linux the exception ABI is implemented at the compiler level (inside GCC and the linker) and the kernel tells a thread of exceptional events by sending signals. The language runtime may or may not translate these signals into native exceptions, but whatever happens the kernel does not care.

You may think that if an app crashes, it's game over and it really shouldn't matter how Wine handles this. It's what you might intuitively guess, but you'd be wrong. In fact some Windows programs expect to be able to crash themselves and recover later without the user noticing, some contain buggy binary-only components from third parties and use SEH to swallow crashes, and still others execute privileged (kernel-level) instructions and expect it to work. In fact, at least one set of APIs (the IsBad*Ptr() series) can only be implemented by performing an operation that may crash and returning TRUE if it does, and FALSE if it doesn't! So, Wine needs to not only implement the SEH infrastructure but also translate Unix signals into SEH exceptions.

The code to translate signals into exceptions is a part of NTDLL, and can be found in dlls/ntdll/signal_i386.c. This file sets up handlers for various signals during Wine startup, and for the ones that indicate exceptional conditions translates them into exceptions. Some signals are used by Wine internally and have nothing to do with SEH.

Signal handlers in Wine run on their own stack. Each thread has its own signal stack which resides 4k after the TEB. This is important for a couple of reasons. Firstly, because there's no guarantee that the app thread which triggered the signal has enough stack space for the Wine signal handling code. In Windows, if a thread hits the limits of its stack it triggers a fault on the stack guard page. The language runtime can use this to grow the stack if it wants to. However, because a guard page violation is just a regular segfault to the kernel, that would lead to a nested signal handler and that gets messy really quick so we disallow that in Wine. Secondly, setting up the exception to throw requires modifying the stack of the thread which triggered it, which is quite hard to do when you're still running on it.

Windows exceptions typically contain more information than the Unix standard APIs provide. For instance, a STATUS_ACCESS_VIOLATION exception (0xC0000005) structure contains the faulting address, whereas a standard Unix SIGSEGV just tells the app that it crashed. Usually this information is passed as an extra parameter to the signal handler, however its location and contents vary between kernels (BSD, Solaris, etc). This data is provided in a SIGCONTEXT structure, and on entry to the signal handler it contains the register state of the CPU before the signal was sent. Modifying it will cause the kernel to adjust the context before restarting the thread.

## 6 File management

With time, Windows API comes closer to the old Unix paradigm “Everything is a file”. Therefore, this whole section dedicated to file management will cover firstly the file management, but also some other objects like directories, and even devices, which are manipulated in Windows in a rather coherent way. We'll see later on some other objects fitting (more or less) in this picture (pipes or consoles to name a few).

First of all, Wine, while implementing the file interface from Windows, needs to maps a file name (expressed in the Windows world) onto a file name in the Unix world. This encompasses several aspects: how to map the file names, how to map access rights (both on files and directories), how to map physical devices (hardisks, but also other devices - like serial or parallel interfaces - and even VxDs).

### 6.1 Various Windows formats for file names

Let's first review a bit the various forms Windows uses when it comes to file names.

#### 6.1.1 The DOS inheritance

At the beginning was DOS, where each file has to sit on a drive, called from a single letter. For separating device names from directory or file names, a ':' was appended to this single letter, hence giving the (in)-famous C: drive designations. Another great invention was to use some fixed names for accessing devices: not only where these named fixed, in a way you couldn't change the name if you'd wish to, but also, they were insensible to the location where you were using them. For example, it's well known that COM1 designates the first serial port, but it's also true that c:\foo\bar\com1 also designates the first serial port. It's still true today: on XP, you still cannot name a file COM1, whatever the directory!!!

Well later on (with Windows 95), Microsoft decided to overcome some little details in file names: this included being able to get out of the 8+3 format (8 letters for the name, 3 letters for the extension), and so being able to use “long names” (that's the “official” naming; as you can guess, the 8+3 format is a short name), and also to use very strange characters in a file name (like a space, or even a '.'). You could then name a file My File V0.1.txt, instead of myfile01.txt. Just to keep on the fun side of things, for many years the format used on the disk itself for storing the names has been the short name as the real one and to use some tricky aliasing techniques to store the long name. When some newer disk file systems have been introduced (NTFS with NT), in replacement of the old FAT system (which had little evolved since the first days of DOS), the long name became the real name while the short name took the alias role.

Windows also started to support mounting network shares, and see them as they were a local disk (through a specific drive letter). The way it has been done changed along the years, so we won't go into all the details (especially on the DOS and Win9x side).

#### 6.1.2 The NT way

The introduction of NT allowed a deep change in the ways DOS had been handling devices:

• There's no longer a forest of DOS drive letters (even if the assign was a way to create symbolic links in the forest), but a single hierarchical space.

• This hierarchy includes several distinct elements. For example, \Device\Hardisk0\Partition0 refers to the first partition on the first physical hard disk of the system.

• This hierarchy covers way more than just the files and drives related objects, but most of the objects in the system. We'll only cover here the file related part.

• This hierarchy is not directly accessible for the Win32 API, but only the NTDLL API. The Win32 API only allows to manipulate part of this hierarchy (the rest being hidden from the Win32 API). Of course, the part you see from Win32 API looks very similar to the one that DOS provided.

• Mounting a disk is performed by creating a symbol link in this hierarchy from \Global??\C: (the name seen from the Win32 API) to \Device\Harddiskvolume1 which determines the partition on a physical disk where C: is going to be seen.

• Network shares are also accessible through a symbol link. However in this case, a symbol link is created from \Global??\UNC\host\share\ for the share share on the machine host) to what's called a network redirector, and which will take care of 1/ the connection to the remote share, 2/ handling with that remote share the rest of the path (after the name of the server, and the name of the share on that server).

Note

In NT naming convention, \Global?? can also be called \?? to shorten the access.

All of these things, make the NT system pretty much more flexible (you can add new types of filesystems if you want), you provide a unique name space for all objects, and most operations boil down to creating relationship between different objects.

#### 6.1.3 Wrap up

Let's end this chapter about files in Windows with a review of the different formats used for file names:

• c:\foo\bar is a full path.

• \foo\bar is an absolute path; the full path is created by appending the default drive (i.e. the drive of the current directory).

• bar is a relative path; the full path is created by adding the current directory.

• c:bar is a drive relative path. Note that the case where c: is the drive of the current directory is rather easy; it's implemented the same way as the case just below (relative path). In the rest of this chapter, drive relative path will only cover the case where the drive in the path isn't the drive of the default directory. The resolution of this to a full pathname defers according to the version of Windows, and some parameters. Let's take some time browsing through these issues. On Windows 9x (as well as on DOS), the system maintains a process wide set of default directories per drive. Hence, in this case, it will resolve c:bar to the default directory on drive c: plus file bar. Of course, the default per drive directory is updated each time a new current directory is set (only the current directory of the drive specified is modified). On Windows NT, things differ a bit. Since NT implements a namespace for file closer to a single tree (instead of 26 drives), having a current directory per drive is a bit awkward. Hence, Windows NT default behavior is to have only one current directory across all drives (in fact, a current directory expressed in the global tree) - this directory is of course related to a given process -, c:bar is resolved this way:

• If c: is the drive of the default directory, the final path is the current directory plus bar.

• Otherwise it's resolved into c:\bar.

• In order to bridge the gap between the two implementations (Windows 9x and NT), NT adds a bit of complexity on the second case. If the =C: environment variable is defined, then it's value is used as a default directory for drive C:. This is handy, for example, when writing a DOS shell, where having a current drive per drive is still implemented, even on NT. This mechanism (through environment variables) is implemented on CMD.EXE, where those variables are set when you change directories with cd. Since environment variables are inherited at process creation, the current directories settings are inherited by child processes, hence mimicking the behavior of the old DOS shell. There's no mechanism (in NTDLL or KERNEL32) to set up, when current directory changes, the relevant environment variables. This behavior is clearly band-aid, not a full featured extension of current directory behavior.

Wine fully implements all those behaviors (the Windows 9x vs NT ones are triggered by the version flag in Wine).

• \\host\share is UNC (Universal Naming Convention) path, i.e. represents a file on a remote share.

• \\.\device denotes a physical device installed in the system (as seen from the Win32 subsystem). A standard NT system will map it to the \??\device NT path. Then, as a standard configuration, \??\device is likely to be a link to in a physical device described and hooked into the \Device\ tree. For example, COM1 is a link to \Device\Serial0.

• On some versions of Windows, paths were limited to MAX_PATH characters. To circumvent this, Microsoft allowed paths to be 32,767 characters long, under the conditions that the path is expressed in Unicode (no Ansi version), and that the path is prefixed with \\?\. This convention is applicable to any of the cases described above.

To summarize, what we've discussed so, let's put everything into a single table...

DOS, Win32 and NT paths equivalences
Type of path Win32 example NT equivalent Rule to construct
Full path c:\foo\bar.txt \Global??\C:\foo\bar.txt Simple concatenation
Absolute path \foo\bar.txt \Global??\J:\foo\bar.txt Simple concatenation using the drive of the default directory (here J:)
Relative path gee\bar.txt  
                       \Global??\J:\mydir\mysubdir\gee\bar.txt


Simple concatenation using the default directory (here J:\mydir\mysubdir)
Drive relative path j:gee\bar.txt
• On Windows 9x (and DOS), J:\toto\gee\bar.txt.
• On Windows NT, J:\gee\bar.txt.
• On Windows NT, J:\tata\titi\bar.txt.
• On Windows 9x (and DOS), \toto is the default directory on drive J:.
• On Windows NT, if =J: isn't set.
• On Windows NT, if =J: is set to J:\tata\titi.
UNC (Uniform Naming Convention) path \\host\share\foo\bar.txt \Global??\UNC\host\share\foo\bar.txt Simple concatenation.
Device path \\.\device \Global??\device Simple concatenation
Long paths \\?\... With this prefix, paths can take up to 32,767 characters, instead of MAX_PATH for all the others). Once the prefix stripped, to be handled like one of the previous ones, just providing internal buffers large enough).

### 6.2 Wine implementation

We'll mainly cover in this section the way Wine opens a file (in the Unix sense) when given a Windows file name. This will include mapping the Windows path onto a Unix path (including the devices case), handling the access rights, the sharing attribute if any...

#### 6.2.1 Mapping a Windows path into an absolute Windows path

First of all, we described in previous section the way to convert any path in an absolute path. Wine implements all the previous algorithms in order to achieve this. Note also, that this transformation is done with information local to the process (default directory, environment variables...). We'll assume in the rest of this section that all paths have now been transformed into absolute from.

#### 6.2.2 Mapping a Windows (absolute) path onto a Unix path

When Wine is requested to map a path name (in DOS form, with a drive letter, e.g. c:\foo\bar\myfile.txt), Wine converts this into the following Unix path $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/c:/foo/bar/myfile.txt. The Wine configuration process is responsible for setting $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/c: to be a symbolic link pointing to the directory in Unix hierarchy the user wants to expose as the C: drive in the DOS forest of drives.

This scheme allows:

• a very simple algorithm to map a DOS path name into a Unix one (no need of Wine server calls)
• a very configurable implementation: it's very easy to change a drive mapping
• a rather readable configuration: no need of sophisticated tools to read a drive mapping, a ls -l
 
                 $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices says it all.  This scheme is also used to implement UNC path names. For example, Wine maps \\host\share\foo\bar\MyRemoteFile.txt into $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/unc/host/share/foo/bar/MyRemoteFile.txt. It's then up to the user to decide where $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/unc/host/share shall point to (or be). For example, it can either be a symbolic link to a directory inside the local machine (just for emulation purpose), or a symbolic link to the mount point of a remote disk (done through Samba or NFS), or even the real mount point. Wine will not do any checking here, nor will help in actually mounting the remote drive. We've seen how Wine maps a drive letter or a UNC path onto the Unix hierarchy, we now have to look at how the filename is searched within this hierarchy. The main issue is about case sensitivity. Here's a reminder of the various properties for the file systems in the field. File systems' properties FS Name Length of elements Case sensitivity (on disk) Case sensitivity for lookup FAT, FAT16 or FAT32 Short name (8+3) Names are always stored in upper-case Case insensitive VFAT Short name (8+3) + alias on long name Short names are always stored in upper-case. Long names are stored with case preservation. Case insensitive NTFS Long name + alias on short name (8+3). Long names are stored with case preservation. Short names are always stored in upper-case. Case insensitivity Linux FS (ext2fs, ext3fs, reiserfs...) Long name Case preserving Case sensitive Note When we say that most systems in NT are case insensitive, this has to be understood for looking up for a file, where the matches are made in a case insensitive mode. This is different from VFAT or NTFS “case preservation” mechanism, which stores the file names as they are given when creating the file, while doing case insensitive matches. Since most file systems used in NT are case insensitive and since most Unix file systems are case sensitive, Wine undergoes a case insensitive search when it has found the Unix path is has to look for. This means, for example, that for opening the $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/c:/foo/bar/myfile.txt, Wine will recursively open all directories in the path, and check, in this order, for the existence of the directory entry in the form given in the file name (i.e. case sensitive), and if it's not found, in a case insensitive form. This allows to also pass, in most Win32 file API, a Unix path (instead of a DOS or NT path), but we'll come back to this later. This also means that the algorithm described doesn't correctly handle the case of two files in the same directory, whose names only differ on the case of the letters. This means that if there are two files in the same directory whose names match in a case sensitive comparison, Wine will pick up the right one if the filename given matches one of the names (in a case sensitive way), but will pickup one of the two (without defining the one it's going to pickup) if the filename given matches none of the two names in a case sensitive way (but in a case insensitive way). For example, if the two filenames are my_neat_file.txt and My_Neat_File.txt, Wine behavior when opening MY_neat_FILE.txt is undefined.

As Windows, at the early days, didn't support the notion of symbolic links on directories, lots of applications (and some old native DLLs) are not ready for this feature. Mainly, they imply that the directory structure is a tree, which has lots of consequences on navigating in the forest of directories (i.e. there cannot be two ways for going from directory to another, there cannot be cycles...). In order to prevent some bad behavior for such applications, Wine sets up an option. By default, symbolic links on directories are not followed by Wine. There's an option to follow them (see the Wine User Guide), but this could be harmful.

Wine considers that Unix file names are long filename. This seems a reasonable approach; this is also the approach followed by most of the Unix OSes while mounting Windows partitions (with filesystems like FAT, FAT32 or NTFS). Therefore, Wine tries to support short names the best it can. Basically, they are two options:

• The filesystem on which the inspected directory lies in a real Windows FS (like FAT, or FAT32, or NTFS) and the OS has support to access the short filename (for example, Linux does this on FAT, FAT32 or VFAT). In this case, Wine makes full use of this information and really mimics the Windows behavior: the short filename used for any file is the same than on Windows.

• If conditions listed above are not met (either, FS has no physical short name support, or OS doesn't provide the access access to the short name), Wine decides and computes on its own the short filename for a given long filename. We cannot ensure that the generated short name is the same than on Windows (because the algorithm on Windows takes into account the order of creation of files, which cannot be implemented in Wine: Wine would have to cache the short names of every directory it uses!). The short name is made up of part of the long name (first characters) and the rest with a hashed value. This has several advantages:

• The algorithm is rather simple and low cost.

• The algorithm is stateless (doesn't depend of the other files in the directory).

But, it also has the drawbacks (of the advantages):

• The algorithm isn't the same as on Windows, which means a program cannot use short names generated on Windows. This could happen when copying an existing installed program from Windows (for example, on a dual boot machine).

• Two long file names can end up with the same short name (Windows handles the collision in this case, while Wine doesn't). We rely on our hash algorithm to lower at most this possibility (even if it exists).

Wine also allows in most file API to give as a parameter a full Unix path name. This is handy when running a Wine (or Winelib) program from the command line, and one doesn't need to convert the path into the Windows form. However, Wine checks that the Unix path given can be accessed from one of the defined drives, insuring that only part of the Unix / hierarchy can be accessed.

As a side note, as Unix doesn't widely provide a Unicode interface to the filenames, and Windows implements filenames as Unicode strings (even on the physical layer with NTFS, the FATs variant are ANSI), we need to properly map between the two. At startup, Wine defines what's called the Unix Code Page, that's is the code page the Unix kernel uses as a reference for the strings. Then Wine uses this code page for all the mappings it has to do between a Unicode path (on the Windows side) and a Ansi path to be used in a Unix path API. Note, that this will work as long as a disk isn't mounted with a different code page than the one the kernel uses as a default.

We describe below how Windows devices are mapped to Unix devices. Before that, let's finish the pure file round-up with some basic operations.

#### 6.2.3 Access rights and file attributes

Now that we have looked how Wine converts a Windows pathname into a Unix one, we need to cover the various meta-data attached to a file or a directory.

In Windows, access rights are simplistic: a file can be read-only or read-write. Wine sets the read-only flag if the file doesn't have the Unix user-write flag set. As a matter of fact, there's no way Wine can return that a file cannot be read (that doesn't exist under Windows). The file will be seen, but trying to open it will return an error. The Unix exec-flag is never reported. Wine doesn't use this information to allow/forbid running a new process (as Unix does with the exec-flag). Last but not least: hidden files. This exists on Windows but not really on Unix! To be exact, in Windows, the hidden flag is a metadata associated to any file or directory; in Unix, it's a convention based on the syntax of the file name (whether it starts with a '.' or not). Wine implements two behaviors (chosen by configuration). This impacts file names and directory names starting by a '.'. In first mode (ShowDotFile is FALSE), every file or directory starting by '.' is returned with the hidden flag turned on. This is the natural behavior on Unix (for ls or even file explorer). In the second mode (ShowDotFile is TRUE), Wine never sets the hidden flag, hence every file will be seen.

Last but not least, before opening a file, Windows makes use of sharing attributes in order to check whether the file can be opened; for example, a process, being the first in the system to open a given file, could forbid, while it maintains the file opened, that another process opens it for write access, whereas open for read access would be granted. This is fully supported in Wine by moving all those checks in the Wine server for a global view on the system. Note also that what's moved in the Wine server is the check, when the file is opened, to implement the Windows sharing semantics. Further operation on the file (like reading and writing) will not require heavy support from the server.

The other good reason for putting the code for actually opening a file in the server is that an opened file in Windows is managed through a handle, and handles can only be created in Wine server!

Just a note about attributes on directories: while we can easily map the meaning of Windows FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY on a file, we cannot do it for a directory. Windows semantics (when this flag is set) means do not delete the directory, while the w attribute in Unix means don't write nor delete it. Therefore, Wine uses an asymmetric mapping here: if the directory (in Unix) isn't writable, then Wine reports the FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY attribute; on the other way around, when asked to set a directory with FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY attribute, Wine simply does nothing.

#### 6.2.4 Operations on file

Reading and writing are the basic operations on files. Wine of course implements this, and bases the implementation on client side calls to Unix equivalents (like read() or write()). Note, that the Wine server is involved in any read or write operation, as Wine needs to transform the Windows-handle to the file into a Unix file descriptor it can pass to any Unix file function.

##### 6.2.4.2 Getting a Unix fd

This is major operation in any file related operation. Basically, each file opened (at the Windows level), is first opened in the Wine server, where the fd is stored. Then, Wine (on client side) uses recvmsg() to pass the fd from the wine server process to the client process. Since this operation could be lengthy, Wine implement some kind of cache mechanism to send it only once, but getting a fd from a handle on a file (or any other Unix object which can be manipulated through a file descriptor) still requires a round trip to the Wine server.

##### 6.2.4.3 Locking

Windows provides file locking capabilities. When a lock is set (and a lock can be set on any contiguous range in a file), it controls how other processes in the system will have access to the range in the file. Since locking range on a file are defined on a system wide manner, its implementation resides in wineserver. It tries to make use of Unix file locking (if the underlying OS and the mounted disk where the file sits support this feature) with fcntl() and the F_SETLK command. If this isn't supported, then wineserver just pretends it works.

##### 6.2.4.4 I/O control

There's no need (so far) to implement support (for files and directories) for DeviceIoControl(), even if this is supported by Windows, but for very specific needs (like compression management, or file system related information). This isn't the case for devices (including disks), but we'll cover this in the hereafter section related to devices.

##### 6.2.4.5 Buffering

Wine doesn't do any buffering on file accesses but rely on the underlying Unix kernel for that (when possible). This scheme is needed because it's easier to implement multiple accesses on the same file at the kernel level, rather than at Wine levels. Doing lots of small reads on the same file can turn into a performance hog, because each read operation needs a round trip to the server in order to get a file descriptor (see above).

##### 6.2.4.6 Overlapped I/O

Windows introduced the notion of overlapped I/O. Basically, it just means that an I/O operation (think read/write to start with) will not wait until it's completed, but rather return to the caller as soon as possible, and let the caller handle the wait operation and determine when the data is ready (for a read operation) or has been sent (for a write operation). Note that the overlapped operation is linked to a specific thread.

There are several interests to this: a server can handle several clients without requiring multi-threading techniques; you can handle an event driven model more easily (i.e. how to kill properly a server while waiting in the lengthy read() operation).

Note that Microsoft's support for this feature evolved along the various versions of Windows. For example, Windows 95 or 98 only supports overlapped I/O for serial and parallel ports, while NT also supports files, disks, sockets, pipes, or mailslots.

Wine implements overlapped I/O operations. This is mainly done by queuing in the server a request that will be triggered when something the current state changes (like data available for a read operation). This readiness is signaled to the calling processing by queuing a specific APC, which will be called within the next waiting operation the thread will have. This specific APC will then do the hard work of the I/O operation. This scheme allows to put in place a wait mechanism, to attach a routine to be called (on the thread context) when the state changes, and to be done is a rather transparent manner (embedded any the generic wait operation). However, it isn't 100% perfect. As the heavy operations are done in the context of the calling threads, if those operations are lengthy, there will be an impact on the calling thread, especially its latency. In order to provide an effective support for this overlapped I/O operations, we would need to rely on Unix kernel features (AIO is a good example).

#### 6.2.5 Devices & volume management

We've covered so far the ways file names are mapped into Unix paths. There's still need to cover it for devices. As a regular file, devices are manipulated in Windows with both read / write operations, but also control mechanisms (speed or parity of a serial line, volume name of a hard disk, ...). Since this is also supported in Linux, there's also a need to open (in a Unix sense) a device when given a Windows device name. This section applies to DOS device names, which are seen in NT as nicknames to other devices.

Firstly, Wine implements the Win32 to NT mapping as described above, hence every device path (in NT sense) is of the following form: /??/devicename (or /DosDevices/devicename). As Windows device names are case insensitive, Wine also converts them to lower case before any operation. Then, the first operation Wine tries is to check whether $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/devicename exists. If so, it's used as the final Unix path for the device. The configuration process is in charge of creating for example, a symbolic link between $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/PhysicalDrive0 and /dev/hda0. If such a link cannot be found, and the device name looks like a DOS disk name (like C:), Wine first tries to get the Unix device from the path $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/c: (i.e. the device which is mounted on the target of the symbol link); if this doesn't give a Unix device, Wine checks whether $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/c:: exists. If so, it's assumed to be a link to the actual Unix device. For example, for a CD Rom, $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/e:: would be a symbolic link to /dev/cdrom. If this doesn't exist (we're still handling a device name of the C: form), Wine tries to get the Unix device from the system information (/etc/mtab and /etc/fstab on Linux). We cannot apply this method in all the cases, because we have no insurance that the directory can actually be found. One could have, for example, a CD Rom which he/she want only to use as audio CD player (i.e. never mounted), thus not having any information of the device itself. If all of this doesn't work either, some basic operations are checked: if the devicename is NUL, then /dev/null is returned. If the device name is a default serial name (COM1 up to COM9) (resp. printer name LPT1 up to LPT9), then Wine tries to open the Nth serial (resp. printer) in the system. Otherwise, some basic old DOS name support is done AUX is transformed into COM1 and PRN into LPT1), and the whole process is retried with those new names. To sum up: Mapping of Windows device names into Unix device names Windows device name NT device name Mapping to Unix device name any_pathAUX \Global??\AUX Treated as an alias to COM1 any_pathPRN \Global??\PRN Treated as an alias to LPT1 any_pathCOMN \Global??\COMN $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/comN (if the symbol link exists) or the Nth serial line in the system (on Linux, /dev/ttySN-1).
any_pathLPTN \Global??\LPTN $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/lptN (if the symbol link exists) or the Nth printer in the system (on Linux, /dev/lpN-1). any_pathNUL \Global??\NUL /dev/null \\.\E: \Global??\E: $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/e:: (if the symbolic link exists) or guessing the device from /etc/mtab or /etc/fstab.
\\.\device_name \Global??\device_name $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/device_name (if the symbol link exists). Now that we know which Unix device to open for a given Windows device, let's cover the operation on it. Those operations can either be read/write, IO control (and even others). Read and write operations are supported on real disks & CDROM devices, under several conditions: • Foremost, as the ReadFile() and WriteFile() calls are mapped onto the Unix read() and write() calls, the user (from the Unix perspective of the one running the Wine executable) must have read (resp. write) access to the device. It wouldn't be wise to let a user write directly to a hard disk!!! • Block sizes for read and write must be of the size of a physical block (generally 512 for a hard disk, depending on the type of CD used), and offsets must also be a multiple of the block size. Wine also reads (if the first condition above about access rights is met) the volume information from a hard disk or a CD ROM to be displayed to a user. Wine also recognizes VxDs as devices. But those VxDs must be the Wine builtin ones (Wine will never allow to load native VxDs). Those are configured with symbolic links in the $(WINEPREFIX)/dosdevices/ directory, and point to the actual builtin DLL. This DLL exports a single entry point, that Wine will use when a call to DeviceIoControl is made, with a handle opened to this VxD. This allows to provide some kind of compatibility for old Win9x apps, still talking directly to VxD. This is no longer supported on Windows NT, newest programs are less likely to make use of this feature, so we don't expect lots of development in this area, even though the framework is there and working. Note also that Wine doesn't provide support for native VxDs (as a game, report how many times this information is written in the documentation; as an advanced exercise, find how many more occurrences we need in order to stop questions whether it's possible or not).

## 7 NTDLL module

NTDLL provides most of the services you'd expect from a kernel. In lots of cases, KERNEL32 APIs are just wrappers to NTDLL APIs. There are however, some difference in the APIs (the NTDLL ones have quite often a bit wider semantics than their KERNEL32 counterparts). All the detailed functions we've described since the beginning of this chapter are in fact implemented in NTDLL, plus a great numbers of others we haven't written about yet.

## 8 KERNEL32 Module

As already explained, KERNEL32 maps quite a few of its APIs to NTDLL. There are however a couple of things which are handled directly in KERNEL32. Let's cover a few of them...

### 8.1 Console

#### 8.1.1 NT implementation

Windows implements console solely in the Win32 subsystem. Under NT, the real implementation uses a dedicated subsystem csrss.exe Client/Server Run-time SubSystem) which is in charge, among other things, of animating the consoles. Animating includes for example handling several processes on the same console (write operations must be atomic, but also a character keyed on the console must be read by a single process), or sending some information back to the processes (changing the size or attributes of the console, closing the console). Windows NT uses a dedicated (RPC based) protocol between each process being attached to a console and the csrss.exe subsystem, which is in charge of the UI of every console in the system.

#### 8.1.2 Wine implementation

Wine tries to integrate as much as possible into the Unix consoles, but the overall situation isn't perfect yet. Basically, Wine implements three kinds of consoles:

• the first one is a direct mapping of the Unix console into the Windows environment. From the windows program point of view, it won't run in a Windows console, but it will see its standard input and output streams redirected to files; those files are hooked into the Unix console's output and input streams respectively. This is handy for running programs from a Unix command line (and use the result of the program as it was a Unix programs), but it lacks all the semantics of the Windows consoles.
• the second and third ones are closer to the NT scheme, albeit different from what NT does. The wineserver plays the role of the csrss.exe subsystem (all requests are sent to it), and are then dispatched to a dedicated wine process, called (surprise!) wineconsole which manages the UI of the console. There is a running instance of wineconsole for every console in the system. Two flavors of this scheme are actually implemented: they vary on the backend for the wineconsole. The first one, dubbed user, creates a real GUI window (hence the USER name) and renders the console in this window. The second one uses the (n)curses library to take full control of an existing Unix console; of course, interaction with other Unix programs will not be as smooth as the first solution.

The following table describes the main implementation differences between the three approaches.

Function consoles implementation comparison
Function Bare streams Wineconsole with user backend Wineconsole with curses backend
Console as a Win32 Object (and associated handles) No specific Win32 object is used in this case. The handles manipulated for the standard Win32 streams are in fact “bare handles” to their corresponding Unix streams. The mode manipulation functions (GetConsoleMode() / SetConsoleMode()) are not supported. Implemented in server, and a specific Winelib program (wineconsole) is in charge of the rendering and user input. The mode manipulation functions behave as expected. Implemented in server, and a specific Winelib program (wineconsole) is in charge of the rendering and user input. The mode manipulation functions behave as expected.
Inheritance (including handling in CreateProcess() of CREATE_DETACHED, CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE flags). Not supported. Every process child of a process will inherit the Unix streams, so will also inherit the Win32 standard streams. Fully supported (each new console creation will be handled by the creation of a new USER32 window) Fully supported, except for the creation of a new console, which will be rendered on the same Unix terminal as the previous one, leading to unpredictable results.
ReadFile() / WriteFile() operations Fully supported Fully supported Fully supported
Screen-buffer manipulation (creation, deletion, resizing...) Not supported Fully supported Partly supported (this won't work too well as we don't control (so far) the size of underlying Unix terminal
APIs for reading/writing screen-buffer content, cursor position Not supported Fully supported Fully supported
APIs for manipulating the rendering window size Not supported Fully supported Partly supported (this won't work too well as we don't control (so far) the size of underlying Unix terminal
Signaling (in particular, Ctrl+C handling) Nothing is done, which means that Ctrl+C will generate (as usual) a SIGINT which will terminate the program. Partly supported (Ctrl+C behaves as expected, however the other Win32 CUI signaling isn't properly implemented). Partly supported (Ctrl+C behaves as expected, however the other Win32 CUI signaling isn't properly implemented).

The Win32 objects behind a console can be created in several occasions:

• When the program is started from wineconsole, a new console object is created and will be used (inherited) by the process launched from wineconsole.
• When a program, which isn't attached to a console, calls AllocConsole(), Wine then launches wineconsole, and attaches the current program to this console. In this mode, the USER32 mode is always selected as Wine cannot tell the current state of the Unix console.

Please also note, that starting a child process with the CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE flag, will end-up calling AllocConsole() in the child process, hence creating a wineconsole with the USER32 backend.

Another interesting point to note is that Windows implements handles to console objects (input and screen buffers) only in the KERNEL32 DLL, and those are not sent nor seen from the NTDLL level, albeit, for example, console are waitable on input. How is this possible? Well, Windows NT is a bit tricky here. Regular handles have an interesting property: their integral value is always a multiple of four (they are likely to be offsets from the beginning of a table). Console handles, on the other hand, are not multiple of four, but have the two lower bit set (being a multiple of four means having the two lower bits reset). When KERNEL32 sees a handle with the two lower bits set, it then knows it's a console handle and takes appropriate decisions. For example, in the various kernel32!WaitFor*() functions, it transforms any console handle (input and output - strangely enough handles to console screen buffers are waitable) into a dedicated wait event for the targetted console. There's an (undocumented) KERNEL32 function GetConsoleInputWaitHandle() which returns the handle to this event in case you need it. Another interesting handling of those console handles is in ReadFile() (resp. WriteFile()), which behavior, for console handles, is transferred to ReadConsole() (resp. WriteConsole()). Note that's always the ANSI version of ReadConsole() / WriteConsole() which is called, hence using the default console's code page. There are some other spots affected, but you can look in dlls/kernel32 to find them all. All of this is implemented in Wine.

Wine also implements the same layout of the registry for storing the preferences of the console as Windows does. Those settings can either be defined globally, or on a per process name basis. wineconsole provides the choice to the user to pick you which registry part (global, current running program) it wishes to modify the settings for.

Console registry settings
Name Default value Purpose
CursorSize 25 Percentage of cell height to which the cursor extents
CursorVisible 1 Whether the cursor is visible or not
EditionMode 0 The way the edition takes place in the console: 0 is insertion mode, 1 is overwrite mode.
ExitOnDie 1 Whether the console should close itself when last running program attached to it dies
FaceName No default Name of the font to be used for display. When none is given, wineconsole tries its best to pick up a decent font
FontSize 0x0C08 The high word in the font cell height, and the low word is the font cell width. The default value is 12 pixels in height and 8 pixels in width.
FontWeight 0 Weigth of the font. If none is given (or 0) wineconsole picks up a decent font size
HistoryBufferSize 50 Number of entries in history buffer (not actually used)
HistoryNoDup 0 Whether the history should store twice the same entry
MenuMask 0 This mask only exists for Wine console handling. It allows to know which combination of extra keys is needed to open the configuration window on right click. The mask can include MK_CONTROL or MK_SHIFT bits. This can be needed when programs actually need the right click to be passed to them instead of being intercepted by wineconsole.
QuickEdit 0 If null, mouse events are sent to the application. If non null, mouse events are used to select text on the window. This setting must really be set on a application per application basis, because it deals with the fact the CUI application will use or not the mouse events.
ScreenBufferSize 0x1950 The high word is the number of font cells in the height of the screen buffer, while the low word is the number of font cells in the width of the screen buffer.
ScreenColors 0x000F Default color attribute for the screen buffer (low char is the foreground color, and high char is the background color)
WindowSize 0x1950 The high word is the number of font cells in the height of the window, while the low word is the number of font cells in the width of the window. This window is the visible part of the screen buffer: this implies that a screen buffer must always be bigger than its window, and that the screen buffer can be scrolled so that every cell of the screen buffer can be seen in the window.

### 8.2 Win16 processes support

#### 8.2.1 Starting a NE (Win16) process

Wine is also able to run 16-bit processes, but this feature is only supported on Intel IA-32 architectures.

When Wine is requested to run a NE (Win 16 process), it will in fact hand over the execution of it to a specific executable winevdm. VDM stands for Virtual DOS Machine. This winevdm is a Winelib application, but will in fact set up the correct 16-bit environment to run the executable. We will get back later on in details to what this means.

Any new 16-bit process created by this executable (or its children) will run into the same winevdm instance. Among one instance, several functionalities will be provided to those 16-bit processes, including the cooperative multitasking, sharing the same address space, managing the selectors for the 16-bit segments needed for code, data and stack.

Note that several winevdm instances can run in the same Wine session, but the functionalities described above are only shared among a given instance, not among all the instances. winevdm is built as Winelib application, and hence has access to any facility a 32-bit application has.

Each Win16 application is implemented in winevdm as a Win32 thread. winevdm then implements its own scheduling facilities (in fact, the code for this feature is in the krnl386.exe DLL). Since the required Win16 scheduling is non pre-emptive, this doesn't require any underlying OS kernel support.

#### 8.2.2 SysLevels

SysLevels are an undocumented Windows-internal thread-safety system dedicated to 16-bit applications (or 32-bit applications that call - directly or indirectly - 16-bit code). They are basically critical sections which must be taken in a particular order. The mechanism is generic but there are always three syslevels:

• level 1 is the Win16 mutex,
• level 2 is the USER mutex,
• level 3 is the GDI mutex.

When entering a syslevel, the code (in dlls/krnl386.exe16/syslevel.c) will check that a higher syslevel is not already held and produce an error if so. This is because it's not legal to enter level 2 while holding level 3 - first, you must leave level 3.

Throughout the code you may see calls to _ConfirmSysLevel() and _CheckNotSysLevel(). These functions are essentially assertions about the syslevel states and can be used to check that the rules have not been accidentally violated. In particular, _CheckNotSysLevel() will break probably into the debugger) if the check fails. If this happens the solution is to get a backtrace and find out, by reading the source of the wine functions called along the way, how Wine got into the invalid state.

#### 8.2.3 Memory management

Every Win16 address is expressed in the form of selector:offset. The selector is an entry in the LDT, but a 16-bit entry, limiting each offset to 64 KB. Hence, the maximum available memory to a Win16 process is 512 MB. Note, that the processor runs in protected mode, but using 16-bit selectors.

Windows, for a 16-bit process, defines a few selectors to access the “real” memory (the one provided) by DOS. Basically, Wine also provides this area of memory.

### 8.3 DOS processes support

The behaviour we just described also applies to DOS executables, which are handled the same way by winevdm. This is only supported on Intel IA-32 architectures.

Wine implements also most of the DOS support in a Wine specific DLL (winedos). This DLL is called under certain conditions, like:

• In winevdm, when trying to launch a DOS application (.EXE or .COM, .PIF).
• In kernel32, when an attempt is made in the binary code to call some DOS or BIOS interrupts (like Int 21h for example).

When winevdm runs a DOS program, this one runs in real mode (in fact in V86 mode from the IA-32 point of view).

Wine also supports part of the DPMI (DOS Protected Mode Interface).

Wine, when running a DOS programs, needs to map the 1 MB of virtual memory to the real memory (as seen by the DOS program). When this is not possible (like when someone else is already using this area), the DOS support is not possible. Note also that by doing so, access to linear address 0 is enabled (as it's also real mode address 0 which is valid). Hence, NULL pointer dereference faults are no longer caught.