Winedbg has several useful abilities, including the ability to generate backtraces, set breakpoints, and even disassemble code. It supports a subset of the gdb commands, especially the most common ones. For instance you can use info proc and info thread and then attach to a given process, which can be very useful for running backtraces on deadlocks.
While Windows binaries are usually stripped, making backtraces less effective, they can still contain debugging info for built-in Wine modules and can prove handy especially when using native DLLs. Getting a backtrace in Wine should be automatic when an app crashes, but sometimes, for various reasons, that doesn't happen.
You can trigger one manually by starting winedbg in a separate process and attaching it to the hexadecimal thread ID of your program:
(in 1st terminal) wine foo.exe (from now on in a separate terminal) winedbg info process attach 0x<wpid of your process>
If the application has already failed, you can get the backtrace now. Otherwise, type in the winedbg prompt:
set $BreakOnFirstChance=0 cont
This ensures that winedbg will only break for unhandled exceptions, not for all of them (most are harmless). Now just wait for the program to crash and generate a backtrace.
If you just want to get a backtrace of all processes, including the failed program, without figuring out how to attach to it:
(in 1st terminal) wine foo.exe (from now on in a separate terminal) winedbg bt all
If for some reason, you cannot attach to your running process, invoke your program like so:
wine winedbg foo.exe set $BreakOnFirstChance=0 cont
Then just wait for your program to crash.
A good backtrace contains function names and the values of the parameters as well as line numbers like this:
Backtrace: =>0 0x7ea5e750 CreateWindowExW(exStyle=0, className=0x7ed94f50, windowName=0x7ed94f40, style=13565952, x=0, y=0, width=570, height=427, parent=(nil), menu=(nil), instance=0x7ed80000, data=(nil)) [/home/foobar/git/wine/dlls/user32/win.c:1555] in user32 (0x0033fe08) 1 0x7ed94c55 main+0xa5() [/home/foobar/git/wine/dlls/winecrt0/exe_main.c:48] in notepad (0x0033fe88) 2 0x7ed94b77 __wine_spec_exe_entry+0x57(peb=0x7ffdf000) [/home/foobar/git/wine/dlls/winecrt0/exe_entry.c:36] in notepad (0x0033feb8) 3 0x7b875ac5 start_process+0x55(peb=<register ESI not in topmost frame>) [/home/foobar/git/wine/dlls/kernel32/process.c:990] in kernel32 (0x0033fee8) 4 0x7bc6c814 call_thread_func+0xc() in ntdll (0x0033fef8) 5 0x7bc6e811 in ntdll (+0x5e811) (0x0033ffc8) 6 0x7bc4945a in ntdll (+0x3945a) (0x0033ffe8) 7 0xf7e6fc7d wine_call_on_stack+0x1d() in libwine.so.1 (0x00000000) 3 0x7b875ac5 start_process+0x55(peb=<register ESI not in topmost frame>) [/home/foobar/git/wine/dlls/kernel32/process.c:990] in kernel32 (0x0033fee8) 4 0x7bc6c814 call_thread_func+0xc() in ntdll (0x0033fef8) 5 0x7bc6e811 in ntdll (+0x5e811) (0x0033ffc8) 6 0x7bc4945a in ntdll (+0x3945a) (0x0033ffe8) 7 0xf7e6fc7d wine_call_on_stack+0x1d() in libwine.so.1 (0x00000000)
If your backtrace is missing information like the source file name and line number then you may need to compile from source. First, check if your package manager has a 'wine-dev' or 'wine-dbg' package available, which may contain the debugging information. If not, or if it still doesn't show a proper backtrace after installing, build wine from source.
If you still aren't getting source annotations, check your CFLAGS. CFLAGS="-g" should enable them. On Fedora/RedHat, CFLAGS="-g -gdwarf-2" may be required. You can also often get better backtraces by compiling without optimization (e.g. with -O0 for gcc or /Od for visual c++).