Many distributions that popped up since 2005 (including Linux Mint) are based on Ubuntu and its package repos. The instructions on this page should apply to most of those distros with minimal changes.
Ubuntu uses a rapid-release development model, with new releases about every 6 months. The version numbers for Ubuntu releases follow the format: Ubuntu YY.MM where YY are the last two digits of the year and MM the month. Every two years, the release is designated as an "LTS" (long-term support) version, with an extended support-life.
Also, you'll often hear Ubuntu releases referred to by either adjectives (e.g. Dapper or "Precise") or animal names (e.g. "Drake" or "Pangolin"). The Ubuntu team gives every release an alliterative codename of the form: Adjective Animal, and the starting letter advances with each release.
You might also hear about Kubuntu, Xubuntu, or Lubuntu; these aren't separate distros but different "flavors" provided by the Ubuntu team. Each one comes with a different desktop environment (KDE, XFCE, LXDE) instead of Ubuntu's default Unity environment, but all the other software included in the release should be identical.
The information below is obsolete; the Ubuntu Wine PPA is no longer being actively maintained.
Just like Debian, which Ubuntu is based on, every release includes two main packages, called wine and wine-development. The wine package includes a stable release of wine, and the wine-development release has a development one, but neither is necessarily the newest version from WineHQ. Instead, these packages contain whichever versions came out prior to Ubuntu's code-freeze for that release.
If you want a package of the newest development release, you'll want to use the Wine PPA. You can read more about that at WineHQ's Ubuntu Download page. The quick precis is that you just need to add the PPA as an APT source, then install the wine1.7 package. To do that from a command-line:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntu-wine/ppa sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install wine1.7
You might also need to install some of the supplementary packages (winetricks, wine-gecko, and wine-mono) to get full functionality. The default wine package in Ubuntu should automatically pull in at least the winetricks package though.
If you plan on doing regression testing and your computer is slow at compiling, check out the Ubuntu package archive. You can download pre-built .deb packages for many of Wine's previous releases and narrow down when a regression appeared, all without compiling any code.
Installing without Internet
Wine isn't on the standard Ubuntu install image so you need to be a little cunning to install wine on an Ubuntu machine without internet access. You need not only the Wine .deb package, but also its dependencies. Fortunately, this isn't too hard if you have access to a second Ubuntu machine (or VM) with an internet connection.
The procedure goes like this:
- On the machine with internet, add the WineHQ PPA, then cache just the necessary packages without actually extracting them:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntu-wine/ppa sudo apt-get update
- Then cache just the packages necessary for installing wine, without extracting them:
sudo apt-get clean sudo apt-get --download-only install wine1.7 sudo apt-get --download-only dist-upgrade
- Copy all of the .deb files in /var/cache/apt/archives to a USB stick:
cp -R /var/cache/apt/archives/ /media/usb-drive/deb-pkgs/
- Finally, on the machine without internet, install all of the packages from the flash drive:
cd /media/usb-drive/deb-pkgs sudo dpkg -i *.deb
Determining your build dependencies should be simple with the PPA mentioned above:
sudo apt-get build-dep wine1.7
If you want to build the development release, you can also just download the source package right then too:
sudo apt-get source wine1.7
In order for the build-dep command to work, you need to add or uncomment a fitting deb-src line in your APT sources i.e. /etc/apt/sources.list (or a separate .list file in /etc/apt/sources.list.d/). For example, this line adds all source package info for Trusty Tahr from the primary Ubuntu repo (be sure to change the release to fit your system, plus components and mirror URL if you prefer):
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
Wine is another distro committed to multi-arch so for now, you can't simply install 32-bit and 64-bit libraries alongside each other. If you're on a 64-bit system, you'll have to create an isolated environment for installing and building with 32-bit dependencies.
If you just want to rebuild the package from the PPA, you can use the pbuilder-dist tool from the ubuntu-dev-tools package to do this:
pbuilder-dist vivid i386 create pbuilder-dist vivid i386 build wine*.dsc