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Revision 217 as of 2008-07-07 19:53:04

This FAQ, or Frequently Asked Questions, covers general topics about Wine. For questions related to Wine software development, see DeveloperFaq

Contents

  1. General Questions
    1. How do I run Wine?
    2. How do I install my application in Wine?
    3. How do I run an installer using Wine?
    4. How do I run an application once I've installed it?
    5. Which version of Wine should I use?
    6. I have lots of applications already installed in Windows. How do I run them in Wine?
    7. Do I have to use the command line?
    8. How should I start Windows programs from the command line?
    9. How can I get a debugging log?
    10. What is the difference between Wine, CrossOver, and Cedega?
    11. Why do some people write WINE and not Wine?
    12. Is Wine an emulator? There seem to be disagreement.
    13. Does Wine hurt Linux?
    14. Why does Wine have a Windows version on the download page?
    15. Does Wine run on 64-bit?
    16. Can I use Wine to install drivers for my hardware?
    17. Where can I get further help?
    18. Who is responsible for Wine?
    19. How can I help contribute to the Wine project, and in what ways?
    20. I think I've found a bug. How do I report this bug to the Wine programming team?
  2. Using Wine
    1. When I double-click on a .exe file in my File Manager, nothing happens.
    2. I want to pass command line arguments to my program
    3. I want my Windows application to be able to launch a Linux application to open documents
    4. I want to associate some Linux program with a file type in Wine
    5. My program froze up, how do I close it?
    6. My application says some DLL or font is missing. What do I do?
    7. What is this "winetricks" thing? Where do I get it?
    8. My application won't run, and says it needs MFC40.DLL
    9. My application won't run, and says it needs MFC42.DLL or MSVCP60.DLL
    10. My application won't run, and says it needs MSVCR71.DLL
    11. My application won't run, and says it needs MDAC
    12. My application won't run, and the log shows lots of OLE errors
    13. My application won't run, and says it needs .NET
    14. My application won't run, and says it needs Internet Explorer
    15. How do I install Internet Explorer in Wine?
    16. My application runs, but text areas act strangely (e.g. lines don't wrap, double clicking doesn't select words)
    17. How do I get Wine to launch an individual application inside of a virtual desktop?
    18. My application complains about being unable to change the resolution or color depth.
    19. The application I am trying to run complains that it needs 256 colors but I have millions of colors.
    20. My X screen won't go back to its normal resolution after running a game fullscreen.
    21. I'm using Desktop Effects with Compiz Fusion or XGL and get poor performance/odd messages/broken applications
    22. How do I know what version of Wine I have?
    23. Should I run Wine as root?
    24. So, I ran wine with sudo or as root, how do I fix my permission errors?
    25. How do I uninstall Wine? How do I wipe the virtual Windows installation?
    26. Which sound driver should I select in winecfg?
    27. Why isn't PulseAudio available?
    28. I'm using OSS in Wine and I have no sound.
    29. Running winecfg seems to hang or complain about files when I click the audio tab
    30. Running winecfg has No text or damaged text displayed
    31. Using wine over remote X11 sessions and No text or damaged text displayed
    32. How can I make Wine fonts anti-aliased?
    33. How do I change font size / DPI ?
    34. Wine's windows and fonts are extremely large, and the whole window can't fit on the screen
    35. How do I edit the Wine registry?
    36. I have an MSI file, how do I install/run it?
    37. My CD or DVD disc won't eject
    38. My program fails to do networking, but Linux can get online
    39. How do I configure a proxy?
    40. How do I get a debug trace?
    41. Why doesn't DNS resolve in 64-bit OS's?
    42. What applications/services conflict with Wine?
    43. I deleted my Wine menu, and now I can't get it back.
  3. Applications
    1. How do I uninstall Windows applications?
    2. Will Wine work with my application?
    3. Does Wine support DirectX? Can I install Microsoft's DirectX under Wine?
    4. How come Wine doesn't work well with copy protection?
    5. My application worked with an older version of Wine, but now it's broken!
    6. I really need this particular application to work. How can I go about making this happen?
  4. Performance
    1. What are the system requirements for Wine?
    2. My 3D application/game is very slow (fps).
    3. Is Wine slower than just using Windows?
    4. I get lots of "fixme:" messages in the terminal and Wine runs a bit slow.
    5. ISSUE: "preloader: Warning: failed to reserve range 00000000-60000000"
  5. Apple
    1. How do I install Wine on my Mac?
    2. Can I use Wine on an older Mac without an Intel chip?
  6. Risks
    1. Wine is malware-compatible
    2. Nautilus can delete your home directory when you empty the trash!

1. General Questions

1.1. How do I run Wine?

Wine is not an application you run. Wine enables your computer to run Windows applications. Simply install and run your applications as you would in Windows.

1.2. How do I install my application in Wine?

Just run the application's installer using Wine. (For instance, if it's on a CD or DVD, navigate to the CD or DVD drive and the run the setup.exe or similar program there.)

1.3. How do I run an installer using Wine?

Double-click on the installer, just like in Windows!

You can also right click on it, choose "Run with", and pick wine.

Or, if all else fails, open a terminal window, "change directory" to the folder containing the installer's .exe file, and run the installer with Wine by typing "wine" followed by the installer's filename. For example:

$ cd Desktop
$ wine FluffyBunnySetup.exe

If the installer's name doesn't end in .exe, you have to say "wine start" and then the filename:

$ cd Desktop
$ wine start FluffyBunnySetup.msi

(Don't type the $, that's the computer's prompt. Instead of typing the entire filename, you can usually type just the first few letters and then press Tab, and the computer will complete the filename you were typing for you.)

1.4. How do I run an application once I've installed it?

After you install an application with Wine, it will probably have an entry in the your computer's Applications->Wine->Programs menu, and/or an icon on the desktop, just as it would under Windows. You should be able to use them just as you would on Windows.

Alternately, browse to the ".wine/drive_c/Program Files" folder in your home directory (it is hidden, so you might need to do View->Show Hidden Files in your file manager), look for the application's main .exe file (you may have to guess), and double-click it.

Or, if all else fails, open a terminal window, and navigate down to the application's directory. For example:

First, navigate to your home directory in the command line:

$ cd

".wine/drive_c" in your home directory is equivalent to "C:\" for your Windows programs, so to look in "C:\Program Files", you enter ".wine/drive_c/Program Files":

$ cd ".wine/drive_c/Program Files"
$ ls
Adobe     Microsoft   FluffyBunny
$ cd FluffyBunny

Then look for the application's main .exe file (you may have to guess), and run it using the "wine" command. For example:

$ ls *.exe
fluff.exe  uninstall.exe  ereg.exe
$ wine fluff.exe

1.5. Which version of Wine should I use?

You should use the latest stable release, currently 1.0.0. Wine 1.0.0 is still relatively new, so it is unlikely that this is the version you have by default. When new distribution releases come out in the coming months, however, they are likely to include Wine 1.0.0.

If the latest stable release doesn't work for you after trying the suggestions below, you can test a development release. Try the latest development release first, however if you are upgrading frequently be aware that it's possible for an application to work in one release but stop working in the next due to a regression.

1.6. I have lots of applications already installed in Windows. How do I run them in Wine?

Short answer: You have to install them in Wine just like you did in Windows. Applications usually have a setup or installer program.

Long answer: Some applications can be copied from Windows to Wine and still work, but don't try this unless you like tinkering under the hood of your car while it's running.

Wine is not designed to interact with an existing Windows installation.

WARNING: Do not try to configure Wine to point to your actual Windows C:\ drive. We have tried to make this hard to do, so you probably cannot do it by accident. Wine may or may not continue to operate. Your Windows install will be 100 percent dead due to wine inserting its required parts windows that are ELF-PE. The only way to fix Windows after this has happened is to run a reinstall of Windows.

1.7. Do I have to use the command line?

If you have a sufficiently recent version of Wine (at least 0.9.60), you do not have to use the command line to use Wine. You can use a graphical interface for most things, much like on Windows.

If you are using Ubuntu Hardy, you probably do NOT have a sufficiently recent version of Wine. See this page for upgrade instructions.

If you decide to use a version of Wine that is older than 0.9.60, you will have to use the command line when you start .exe files. Wine will attempt to start them when you double-click, but it used to do this wrong and would cause some strange problems. See the next question for instructions.

You do not have to use the command line if an installer has created a shortcut to your program, even on old versions. You can start the shortcut using the icon or menu.

Even if you have a recent version, there are several situations when you might want to use the command line. The most common reason is to get debug output when your program does not run properly. You might also want to use utilities, such as regedit or winecfg, that do not have menu shortcuts.

1.8. How should I start Windows programs from the command line?

On versions of Wine older than 0.9.60, you must use the command line to start .exe files.

Because Windows programs will often look for files in the location they were started from, when using the command line you should start them in a very specific way. Namely, "change directory" to the folder where the program is located and run the .exe file using only its filename. For example:

$ cd '.wine/drive_c/Games/Tron'
$ wine tron.exe

In some cases you may wish to specify the full path to the program's .exe file. For example, if you need to install a program from multiple CDs, the previous method won't work (entering the directory in the terminal will prevent you from removing the CD). You can provide Wine with a DOS or Windows style path inside single quotes like so:

$ wine 'C:\Games\Tron\tron.exe'

You can also use double quotes, but you need two backslashes instead of one:

$ wine start "C:\\Games\\Tron\\tron.exe"

If you need to use a Unix style pathname, use the /Unix option to start, e.g.

$ wine start /Unix $HOME/installers/TronSetup.exe

Once a program is installed, you can safely use any shortcuts that the installer has created.

1.9. How can I get a debugging log?

To see Wine's log, just run your application under wine from the command line as described above.

You can then copy the log from the screen and paste it into a file if it's short.

To save a long log to a file, redirect the output of wine to a file using Unix shell redirection, e.g.

$ cd ".wine/drive_c/Games/Tron"
$ wine tron.exe > log.txt 2>&1

(Wine used to come with a tool called winelauncher that could do this for you, but it was buggy, and was removed shortly before wine-1.0.)

1.10. What is the difference between Wine, CrossOver, and Cedega?

Wine is the base of the project, where most of the work is being done. Wine is currently a "beta" software project, intended mainly for developers, testers, and early adopters at the moment. Despite Wine's beta limitations, tens of thousands of people nevertheless use "vanilla" Wine successfully to run a large number of Windows programs.

CrossOver (formerly CrossOver Office) is a product made by a company called CodeWeavers that is based directly on Wine with a few proprietary add-ons. Unlike the biweekly Wine releases, CrossOver releases are rigorously tested for compatibility with CodeWeavers' supported applications in order to prevent "[regressions]". CodeWeavers employs a large portion of the Wine developers and provides a great deal of leadership for the project. All improvements to Wine eventually work their way into CrossOver.

Cedega (formerly WineX) is a product from a company called TransGaming. TransGaming based their product on Wine back in 2002 when Wine had a different license, closed their source code, and rebranded their version as specialized for gamers. In the years since Cedega was originally created from Wine, development on Wine and Cedega have continued mostly independently. TransGaming currently gives back very little code to Wine. Cedega is not "Wine with more gaming support" - because Wine has had years of development since Cedega was made, many games actually run better under Wine than under Cedega. Currently, Wine has more advanced Direct3D support than Cedega, but Cedega still has more advanced copy protection support due to TransGaming's licensing of (closed source) code from a handful of copy protection companies. Unlike CrossOver, most improvements to Wine don't get into Cedega due to the license differences between Cedega and Wine.

For more information on how this happened, see Wine History

1.11. Why do some people write WINE and not Wine?

They are using the acronym "Wine Is Not an Emulator", the original name for the project. While recursive acronyms are clever, there really is no point to the capital letters. They look ugly, so please use the simpler, current name of the project: Wine. It's what we use.

1.12. Is Wine an emulator? There seem to be disagreement.

There is a lot of confusion about this, particularly caused by people getting wine name wrong and call it WINdows Emulator.

When users think of an emulator, they tend to think of things like game console emulators or virtualization software. This is the wrong way to think about Wine - Wine runs Windows applications in essentially the same way Windows does. Because Wine is just a native Unix substitute for the components of Windows, there is no inherent loss of speed due to "emulation" when using Wine, nor is there a need to open Wine before running your application.

That said, Wine can be thought of as a Windows emulator in much the same way that Windows Vista can be thought of as a Windows XP emulator; both allow you to run the same applications by translating system calls in much the same way. Setting Wine to mimic Windows XP is not much different from setting Vista to launch an application in XP compatibility mode.

There are a few things that makes wine more than just an emulator.

  • Sections of Wine can be used on Windows. Some virtual machines use Wine's implementation of Direct3D, which works based on OpenGL, on Windows rather than truly emulate 3D hardware.
  • Winelib can be used for porting windows application source code to other operating systems that Wine supports to run on any processor even processes that neither Windows or the Emulator bit of Wine supports.

"Wine is not just an emulator" would be a more correct name. Thinking of wine as just an emulator is really forgetting about the other things it is. Wine emulator is really just a loader that allows windows binaries to be loaded and interfaced with the Wine API replacement for porting applications across.

1.13. Does Wine hurt Linux?

Wine increases the usefulness of Linux, makes it easier for users to switch to Linux, and makes it easier for Windows developers to make applications that work on Linux. See the Debunking Wine Myths article for a fuller answer.

1.14. Why does Wine have a Windows version on the download page?

The Windows version allows Wine developers to test out the completeness of Wine DLLs by replacing those on Windows. At least for now, this is mainly for developers. However, in the future once we finish our DirectX 10 implementation, we may be able to implement Direct3D 10 in Windows XP the same way it runs in Wine: by translating DirectX calls to OpenGL ones.

1.15. Does Wine run on 64-bit?

Yes. Normally, installation should be the same as with 32-bit: simply install the Wine package for your distribution. Check the Downloads page. If you need to build Wine from source, see WineOn64bit for further details.

Note that Wine for 64-bit actually runs in 32-bit mode. This is necessary, as virtually all Windows applications are 32-bit. Simultaneous support for 64-bit Windows applications is planned for the distant future, after Wine's 1.0 release.

  • Wine is currently offered in 32-bit. 16-bit and 32-bit Windows applications work with it. 64-bit Linux installations will work with the 32-bit Wine
  • Wine will be offered in 64-bit. 64-bit Windows applications will work with it. Some 16-bit applications will not work with it.

1.16. Can I use Wine to install drivers for my hardware?

No. With the possible future exception of some printer drivers, Wine requires your hardware to already be working on your operating system. The technical reason for this is that Wine, like most applications, runs in user mode and not kernel mode.

1.17. Where can I get further help?

In addition to this Wiki, the Wine HQ Documentation and mailing lists are excellent resources. You'll most likely want the wine-users mailing list, however if you're an ISV looking at porting an application with Winelib you can also try wine-devel.

If you are looking for help with a specific application, you may want to search the Application DB. The AppDB is a place where users can share their experiences by submitting test data, sharing tips and tricks, and asking questions.

The IRC channel: #WineHQ on irc.freenode.net. Usually several knowledgeable Wine users hang out there, and often developers will lurk there too. See IRC for more important information.

There's also a Usenet newsgroup, but you really should use the mailing list instead. The mailing lists are what the developers use and monitor, so you're more likely to get help. Anyway, the newsgroup is comp.emulators.ms-windows.wine.

1.18. Who is responsible for Wine?

Wine is available thanks to the work of many people around the world. Some companies that are or have been involved with Wine development are CodeWeavers, TransGaming, Corel, Macadamian, and Google. Please see the Acknowledgements, and WineHistory pages for more information.

1.19. How can I help contribute to the Wine project, and in what ways?

You can contribute programming or documentation skills, or monetary or equipment donations, to aid the Wine developers in reaching their goals.

One area where every Wine user can contribute to this project is by sending high quality bug reports to our Bugzilla and helping the developers with any follow up questions that they may have about a bug that you have come across. It is not only impossible but also impractical for a developer to have a copy of every program on the market. This is why we need your help even after you have sent in the initial bug report. If a developer has a good idea what might be causing the bug, he or she may ask if you can try a patch and see if it fixes the problem. After this patch makes its way into our main development tree, the bug report will be closed and your help will be appreciated by everyone.

For a list of ideas of how you can help, please consult the helping Wine page.

1.20. I think I've found a bug. How do I report this bug to the Wine programming team?

Bug reports should be submitted to our online Bugzilla system (http://bugs.winehq.org/). To increase developer productivity and facilitate a resolution to submitted bugs, please read the Wiki article on Bugs. A poor bug report may be marked INVALID and closed, leaving you no closer to resolving your problem. High quality bug reports are an essential part of making Wine better.

Please note that you should generally avoid submitting bug reports if you have used any third party applications or native DLL overrides.

2. Using Wine

2.1. When I double-click on a .exe file in my File Manager, nothing happens.

Note: If you can, start applications by clicking on the application's icon in the Applications / Wine menu or desktop instead. Double-clicking .exe's is typically only needed for applications that aren't installed yet, e.g. to run the setup.exe on a cd-rom game, or a downloaded installer.

If double-clicking doesn't work, you might need to right-click the file and choose "Run with Wine". It depends on your file manager. If that also doesn't work, contact whoever built your wine packages and complain.

You can work around this problem by using the command line instead of your File Manager. To do this, open a terminal window, navigate to the folder where your application is, and run it by typing wine (program).exe. Running wine in this fashion will also let you see Wine's debugging log. This may not be the friendliest way to use Wine, but at the moment it is the most effective, and it's how wine developers usually do it.

If you see a line like

err:module:import_dll Library MFC42.DLL (which is needed by L"C:\\Program Files\\Yoyodyne\\Overthruster.DLL") not found

it means you need to install a missing runtime library; see e.g. "My application won't run, and says it needs MFC42.DLL" below.

2.2. I want to pass command line arguments to my program

If you're using a program with switches on Windows, for instance:

quake.exe -map e1m1

Then you can do the equivalent in Wine by running:

wine quake.exe -map e1m1

That is, the command line is identical, except with a wine in front. Note, however, that you may need to escape certain special characters with backslashes due to the way they're handled in the Linux shell. For instance:

quake.exe -map C:\Quake\e1m1.bsp

Becomes:

wine quake.exe -map C:\\Quake\\e1m1.bsp

For more information on using backslashes, see: http://www.tuxfiles.org/linuxhelp/weirdchars.html

2.3. I want my Windows application to be able to launch a Linux application to open documents

You can start Linux applications directly from Wine only if you specify full path or use shell:

/usr/bin/glxgears
# or
/bin/sh -c glxgears

You will also need winepath to translate the filename from Windows format to Linux format.

2.4. I want to associate some Linux program with a file type in Wine

For this you will need a simple script to call Linux application. Save it as "run_linx_program" under $HOME/bin. Don't forget to run 'chmod a+x $HOME/bin/run_linx_program' to make it executable.

#!/bin/sh
$1 "`wine winepath -u "$2"`"

Second to associate say .pdf files with acroread Linux program save this as "$HOME/pdf.reg" and then import it with 'regedit ~/pdf.reg' command

[HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\.pdf]
@="PDFfile"
"Content Type"="application/pdf"

[HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\PDFfile\Shell\Open\command]
@="/bin/sh run_linx_program acroread \"%1\""

You can reuse this script and just edit the registry file. For example to associate .doc documents with OpenOffice (ooffice):

[HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\.doc]
@="DOCfile"
"Content Type"="application/msword"

[HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\DOCfile\Shell\Open\command]
@="/bin/sh run_linx_program ooffice \"%1\""

2.5. My program froze up, how do I close it?

If you ran the program from a terminal window by typing wine (program).exe, you can usually just go back to that terminal window and press ctrl+c. If you ran the application some other way, such as from a launcher shortcut, then you can open up a terminal and forcibly kill the process:

killall -9 Application.exe

If you want to kill all Wine programs at once, you can run:

wineserver -k

You can also open up a Wine version of the Windows task manager by running "wine taskmgr" in a terminal. This will allow you to cancel individual Wine processes.

If you are getting a complete deadlock and are unable to even use your mouse after running Wine, it's probably not a specific problem with the Wine software. Wine is a user-level process, and shouldn't be able to completely hang the operating system under any circumstances. Instead, Wine is likely exposing a deeper problem with the system, such as a defective hardware driver.

2.6. My application says some DLL or font is missing. What do I do?

Applications should come with all the DLLs they need (except for core windows DLLs). They sometimes forget to, and rely on you to already have the DLL or font installed. You can install the missing DLL or font in several ways:

  1. downloading them from the original creators of the runtime (eg. Microsoft). The easiest way to do this is with winetricks (see below).
  2. installing other applications which do include them
  3. copying them from a licensed version of Windows installed on the same machine

/!\ Do not download DLLs or scripts from websites you do not know and trust! Fake or infected DLLs can cause you great pain, even on Wine.

2.7. What is this "winetricks" thing? Where do I get it?

winetricks is a shell script that downloads missing DLLs and fonts for you from the best known source. It was written to help Wine developers, but it turned out to be useful for end users, too. See the wiki page about winetricks for more info.

2.8. My application won't run, and says it needs MFC40.DLL

See "How can I get a copy of some runtime library?" above. You can install MFC40.DLL by running winetricks and selecting mfc40.

2.9. My application won't run, and says it needs MFC42.DLL or MSVCP60.DLL

See "How can I get a copy of some runtime library?" above. You can install MFC42.DLL, MSVCP60.DLL, and friends by running winetricks and selecting vcrun6.

2.10. My application won't run, and says it needs MSVCR71.DLL

See "How can I get a copy of some runtime library?" above. You can install MSVCR71.DLL and friends by running winetricks and selecting "vcrun2003     MS Visual C++ 2003 libraries (mfc71,msvcp71,msvcr71)".

2.11. My application won't run, and says it needs MDAC

See "How can I get a copy of some runtime library?" above. You can install MDAC by running winetricks and selecting mdac 2.7.

2.12. My application won't run, and the log shows lots of OLE errors

There's some chance that Wine's COM implementation has a bug or missing feature that's hurting your app. If so, you can sometimes work around this by using native DCOM98. See "How can I get a copy of some runtime library?" above. You can install OLE by running winetricks and selecting dcom98. If it helps, be sure to file a bug report. If it doesn't, you can undo the installation by running winecfg and removing the native library overrides for rpcrt4, ole32, and oleaut32. See also NativeDcom.

2.13. My application won't run, and says it needs .NET

You're probably out of luck, but if you're brave, you can still try running it.

See "How can I get a copy of some runtime library?" above. You can install .net 2.0 by running winetricks and selecting dotnet20. This is not yet supported, and few .NET applications actually work. See the .NET AppDB pages for more information on installing these runtimes.

Alternately, you can install Mono, an open source implementation of .net 2.0, by running winetricks and selecting mono19. This is not yet supported, and very few .NET applications actually work with it under Wine. See the Mono Project AppDB page for more information.

2.14. My application won't run, and says it needs Internet Explorer

Wine uses the core of Firefox (called Gecko) to implement its own Internet Explorer.

In some cases, you can make applications which think they need IE happier by running winetricks and selecting gecko and/or fakeie6.

2.15. How do I install Internet Explorer in Wine?

The Wine project does not support this, as Internet Explorer requires a huge number of native DLLs, which is hard to configure.

If for some reason you really, really need to run the real IE, see ies4linux, which is a script that does the necessary Wine configuration for you. (But please don't ask the Wine project for help if you run into trouble, ask the author of ies4linux.)

2.16. My application runs, but text areas act strangely (e.g. lines don't wrap, double clicking doesn't select words)

You may have run into a bug in Wine's RICHED20.DLL. You can try using Microsoft's RICHED20.DLL by running winetricks and selecting riched20. This may let you work around the problem until the Wine developers fix the bug.

2.17. How do I get Wine to launch an individual application inside of a virtual desktop?

For wine-0.9.61 and newer, you can do this with winecfg. Add the application in the Applications tab and then, in the graphics tab, enable "Emulate a virtual desktop."

For Wine-0.9.60 and older winecfg does not allow the setting of virtual desktops for individual applications. However, you can work around this by using the following command:

wine explorer /desktop=name,1024x768 program.exe

Of course, replace program.exe with what your program's name is, and change the resolution to the size of the virtual desktop you want.

2.18. My application complains about being unable to change the resolution or color depth.

You generally need to edit the Screen section of your /etc/X11/xorg.conf to support additional color depths and resolutions. There may also be a problem with Xrandr.

2.19. The application I am trying to run complains that it needs 256 colors but I have millions of colors.

This is a bug in Wine. See http://bugs.winehq.org/show_bug.cgi?id=7334

For now, there are a few workarounds you can try. See 256ColorsWorkarounds

2.20. My X screen won't go back to its normal resolution after running a game fullscreen.

You can often work around this by changing the screen resolution and then changing it back again under the system preferences.

Alternatively, you can run this terminal command to restore your X settings:

xrandr -s 0

2.21. I'm using Desktop Effects with Compiz Fusion or XGL and get poor performance/odd messages/broken applications

Using composite display managers in Linux tends to cripple OpenGL performance or break OpenGL entirely. We recommend that you disable them entirely before trying to use Wine. If you are using one and experiencing slow performance then please do not file bugs in Wine, as these are bugs in your window manager or your video drivers.

2.22. How do I know what version of Wine I have?

Open up a terminal and run wine --version. It will say something like "wine-0.9.36" or if you are using GIT (it's like CVS or SVN) then you will have a version along the lines of "wine-0.9.36-139-ge79a94d".

{i} TIP: You can find out what the latest release of Wine is from WineHQ's main page. Currently, Wine releases come out every two weeks. Your Operating System may ship with an out of date (obsolete) version of Wine. Depending on what OS you use, you may be able to add an update source to your package management system to keep up to date. Check the downloads page for details.

2.23. Should I run Wine as root?

/!\ NEVER run Wine as root! Doing so gives Windows programs (and viruses) full access to your computer and every piece of media attached to it. Running with sudo also has these same risks but with the added bonus of breaking the permission on the users ~/.wine folder in the process. If you have run Wine with sudo you need to sudo rm -rf ~/.wine and then run winecfg to set wine back up. You should run Wine as the normal user you use to login.

For Linux Systems all ideas that wine needs root can be solved through Posix Capabilities http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/5737 or Posix File Capabilities http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/library/l-posixcap.html or correcting other security settings.

2.24. So, I ran wine with sudo or as root, how do I fix my permission errors?

You need to delete your ~/.wine directory, this is where all wine state, configuration and any important data you might have such as installed programs, saved data within wine programs etc. Once you delete or move this directory, rerun wine as a regular user always! Run the following to delete your ~/.wine directory if it now has root permissions.

sudo rm -rvf ~/.wine

2.25. How do I uninstall Wine? How do I wipe the virtual Windows installation?

You can remove your virtual Windows installation and start from scratch by eliminating (or renaming) the hidden .wine directory in your home folder, such as with rm -rf ~/.wine

If you want to remove Wine entirely after you installed it with your distribution's package manager, you can generally uninstall in the same way. Note, however, that uninstalling Wine will not eliminate the virtual Windows installation - to do that you must follow the instructions above.

Since Wine is beta software, periodically we may update the default configuration generated when you first use Wine. Sometimes users have success getting an application to work by wiping (or moving) their ~/.wine folder, rerunning winecfg with the new Wine version, and reinstalling the application.

2.26. Which sound driver should I select in winecfg?

As of Wine 0.9.47 you shouldn't need to configure it any more, defaults should work just fine. For wine 0.9.46 alsa and oss should work equally well. For wine versions before 0.9.42 oss works best, after that alsa is slightly behind oss since it might miss some voice chat capability.

2.27. Why isn't PulseAudio available?

The Wine project has decided not to pursue a Pulse driver for Wine, at this time. We feel it is best to keep working on the more mature Wine Alsa driver. We are aware that some distributions use Pulse as the default, and this is unfortunate. PulseAudio is also known to be buggy when emulating Alsa/OSS and should be disabled for Wine.

There is an unofficial PulseAudio driver for Wine, but it is unsupported and do not submit bug reports while using it

2.28. I'm using OSS in Wine and I have no sound.

Unless you're using a sound card with an emu10k1/2 chipset (SB Live!/Audigy) or another type of card that supports "Hardware Mixing" then you can only ever have one application using sound at the same time. If you have aRts (KDE sound system), ESD (Gnome sound system) or any music apps open then you simply wont hear anything from Wine. You need to kill or close all these programs before being able to get sound from Wine. To work out if anything has locked your sound-card already you can do "cat /dev/urandom >> /dev/dsp". If you get an error message it means that something is using it. If you get loud static this means that your sound card is clear and ready for use.

2.29. Running winecfg seems to hang or complain about files when I click the audio tab

The hang is caused by the "NAS" sound driver. This causes it to pause for a while but it should respond eventually. The only way to get around this is to remove NAS from your system and/or build Wine without NAS support in the first place. If you see messages about JACK in the terminal they can be ignored unless you intend to use the JACK driver. If you wish to use the JACK driver then you need to install JACK's libraries onto your machine before JACK will work.

2.30. Running winecfg has No text or damaged text displayed

or

2.31. Using wine over remote X11 sessions and No text or damaged text displayed

Please make sure not have added any fonts to wine. Font conflicts can sometimes cause a similar issue. If a fresh wine prefix.(A copy of wine that nothing has been done to yet) Is having this problem. Try setting following in registry

[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Wine\X11 Driver]
"ClientSideWithRender"="N"

Place above in text file and it can be inserted into registry by "regedit settings.txt".

This was report as been required of OS X on the 1 Dec 2007. This may change. Please apply only as required.

2.32. How can I make Wine fonts anti-aliased?

TODO

2.33. How do I change font size / DPI ?

First, you should try editing with winecfg. Go to the Graphics tab, and slide the "Screen Resolution" slider accordingly. Changes will not effect the winecfg window until you restart it.

If windows and fonts are so big you can't get to the controls in winecfg, see the next question

2.34. Wine's windows and fonts are extremely large, and the whole window can't fit on the screen

Sometimes you can use the ALT key and the mouse to move the window so you can run winecfg and fix this as described in the previous question

If that doesn't work, you can shut down your windows applications and change the registry value the hard way:

wineserver -k
sed -i 's@"LogPixels"=.*@"LogPixels"=dword:00000060@g' ~/.wine/system.reg

Alternately, you could remove your ~/.wine directory and reinstall your Windows applications.

2.35. How do I edit the Wine registry?

The Wine registry is the .reg files in ~/.wine, however you should not edit these files by hand due to the encoding that they use. Always use the regedit program that comes with Wine. This can be run by typing regedit in the terminal. Wine's regedit is virtually identical to the Windows version of regedit and also supports importing and exporting of registry files. NEVER try and import your entire Windows registry, this will just break Wine.

See also: UsefulRegistryKeys

2.36. I have an MSI file, how do I install/run it?

MSI files cannot be run directly, you need to use the msiexec program. MSI files can be installed in Wine from the terminal like this

wine msiexec /i whatever.msi

That will then run the MSI program the same as if you had double-clicked it in Windows.

2.37. My CD or DVD disc won't eject

Try wine eject. It is a function to free up, unlock, and eject the drive.

2.38. My program fails to do networking, but Linux can get online

Note: These instructions are for older Wine installs. If you're using Wine 1.x and your app still fails to do networking, you can give this a try as well.

If you're running Wine 1.x and below instructions work for you, file a bug so we can fix Wine to improve other people's experience.

You need to make sure that your hostname resolves to the IP address of your network interface. To verify if you have this problem run hostname -i. If it returned IP address starting from "127." then read on.

To set this up correctly, you can type the following from a terminal:

hostname

This will return your hostname the way your computer sees it. Now, you need to open an editor with system administrator privileges, how you do this will depend on the distribution you are using. Open the file /etc/hosts and see if there is an entry for your hostname. Assuming your hostname is "yourhost" and your network IP address is 192.168.0.23, the entry might look like this:

127.0.0.1      yourhost.yourdomain.com      yourhost

Change this to (or add, if there is no such line):

192.168.0.23   yourhost.yourdomain.com      yourhost

For most Windows games with networking problems, this is all you need to get networking to work.

2.39. How do I configure a proxy?

Use regedit to add the following values to the [HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings] key:

"ProxyEnable"=dword:00000001
"ProxyServer"="proxy-server-address:port"

2.40. How do I get a debug trace?

When filing bugs, it is often necessary to get a trace (generally +relay, but specific DLLs have their own debug channels). To retrieve a trace, run:

$ WINEDEBUG=+trace1,+trace2,-trace3 wine your_program.exe &> /tmp/output.txt

Then ATTACH /tmp/output.txt to the bug. If the resulting file is larger than 1 MB, compress it with 'bzip2 -9' or 'rzip -9' before attaching.

For a list of debug channels that are available in Wine, see DebugChannels

2.41. Why doesn't DNS resolve in 64-bit OS's?

Many distributions don't provide all the 32-bit compatibility libraries that wine needs. In this case, wine needs 32 bit DNS libraries. On Ubuntu/Debian, this package is lib32nss-mdns. To install it on those OS's, use:

$ sudo apt-get install lib32nss-mdns

For other OS's, the package name/installation method may differ. Consult your distribution's support channels.

2.42. What applications/services conflict with Wine?

Many distributions are moving towards enabling Compiz/Beryl/other eye candy by default. The problem is that these programs conflict with Wine over the display driver. Disable these programs before using any Wine applications (especially games, or when noticing weird window problems).

Pulseaudio is also known to be buggy when emulating Alsa/OSS and conflicts with Wine.

2.43. I deleted my Wine menu, and now I can't get it back.

Rather than actually delete anything, menu editors on Linux simply mark menus as "Deleted" so that they don't show up in the menu.

This information is stored in ~/.config/menus/applications.menu. Edit ~/.config/menus/applications.menu, and you should find a section near the end that looks similar to this:

        <Menu>
                <Name>wine-wine</Name>
                <Deleted/>
        </Menu>

or perhaps this:

        <Menu>
                <Name>wine-wine</Name>
                <Menu>
                        <Name>wine-Programs</Name>
                        <Menu>
                                <Name>wine-Programs-AutoHotkey</Name>
                                <DirectoryDir>/home/user/.local/share/desktop-directories</DirectoryDir>
                        </Menu>
                </Menu>
                <Deleted/>
        </Menu>

Remove the <Deleted/> line and your Wine menu will reappear.

3. Applications

3.1. How do I uninstall Windows applications?

Wine has its own built-in uninstaller - equivalent of Windows "add/remove programs" function for running standardized uninstallers. In recent version, a shortcut has been added in Wine's menu, along with a shortcut to winecfg.

The uninstaller does not remove menu entries. To remove all Wine created menu entries run the following commands

rm -f $HOME/.config/menus/applications-merged/wine*
rm -rf $HOME/.local/share/applications/wine
rm -f $HOME/.local/share/desktop-directories/wine*
rm -f $HOME/.local/share/icons/????_*.xpm

3.2. Will Wine work with my application?

Probably. If your application is remotely popular, you can find other user reports in the Application Database. If there aren't any reports using a recent version of Wine, however, your best bet is to simply try and see.

3.3. Does Wine support DirectX? Can I install Microsoft's DirectX under Wine?

Wine itself provides a DirectX implementation that, although it has a few bugs left, should run fine. Wine supports DirectX 9.0c at this time. Plans for DirectX 10 are underway.

/!\ If you attempt to install Microsoft's DirectX, you will run into problems. It is not recommended nor supported by Wine HQ to attempt this. You can install the runtime, but it will not run. The runtime needs access to the Windows drivers, and Wine cannot access them for obvious reasons. The only native Microsoft DLLs that could be useful anyway are the d3dx9_xx.dll type ones, and these require you to accept Microsoft's license. Additionally these DLLs are now part of the Wine tree. So, as Wine improves these DLLs will only become less relevant.

That said, there are some guides out there which describe how you can install Microsoft's DirectX. I reiterate: It is not recommended nor supported by Wine HQ to attempt this. Furthermore it is considered off topic in Wine HQ support mediums (such as the forums). Please use a clean Wine configuration folder before seeking help. (You may need to rm -rf ~/.wine and re-install your Windows applications.)

3.4. How come Wine doesn't work well with copy protection?

Copy protection uses several "dirty" methods to detect if discs are "real" or not. Some of these methods work in Wine but most do not, such as the extremely invasive StarForce system. Wine would need to be altered to allow for almost rootkit-like functionality of programs to get some of these copy protection schemes to work, so support is likely to be a long time off if ever. (Some people use illegally modified or "cracked" games with the copy protection removed, but the Wine project cannot advocate that.)

See also our page on copy protection

3.5. My application worked with an older version of Wine, but now it's broken!

These are called regressions. Please file a bug and tag it "regression" - we'll pay special attention to it, since they're a lot easier to fix when caught early. In the future, once we start making "stable" releases, we'll make great effort to ensure that there are no regressions from one stable release to the next.

3.6. I really need this particular application to work. How can I go about making this happen?

We're glad you asked. Please see our Helping Wine page for some suggestions.

Briefly, you can improve Wine yourself, convince someone else to do it for you, or try some complicated hacks involving native Windows DLLs rather than Wine's unfinished ones.

4. Performance

4.1. What are the system requirements for Wine?

The rule of thumb is that if your application runs fine in Windows, it should run fine on the same system using Wine. Wine, along with the operating system you use to run it, generally requires less disk space and memory than Windows itself. If you're not currently running a Windows application, Wine won't consume any resources at all other than about 20 megabytes of disk space.

4.2. My 3D application/game is very slow (fps).

Make sure you have installed the correct graphics driver and that 3D acceleration is working correctly.

The glxgears utility can be used to check if 3D is working at all and glxinfo for more detailed information.

A working installation with an Nvidia card could look like this in glxinfo (only some lines shown here):

direct rendering: Yes
...
OpenGL vendor string: NVIDIA Corporation
OpenGL renderer string: GeForce 8800 GT/PCI/SSE2
OpenGL version string: 2.1.2 NVIDIA 169.12

A broken/incomplete install with pure software rendering could look like this:

direct rendering: No
...
OpenGL vendor string: Mesa project: www.mesa3d.org
OpenGL renderer string: Mesa GLX Indirect
OpenGL version string: 1.4 (1.5 Mesa 6.5.2)

Please note that glxgears is not a good benchmark as it depends a lot on the CPU performance. An Intel 3GHz dual core delivers about 22000 FPS with the correct driver and still 1900 FPS without 3D acceleration.

Please use support channels provided by your OS and graphics card manufacture for help getting hardware accelerated GL installed and working correctly.

4.3. Is Wine slower than just using Windows?

Actually, Wine is sometimes faster. The speed of an application depends on a lot of factors: the available hardware and their drivers, the quality of the code in the APIs the application uses, and the quality of the code in the underlying operating system.

Driver code matters a lot. If you're running a graphics-heavy application using a video card with very poor drivers such as an ATI card under Linux, performance will degrade substantially. On the other hand, Linux has superior memory management, and comes out ahead of Windows in many CPU-related tasks; see benchmarks for more information.

Sometimes, bugs in Wine can make applications excessively slow; see Performance-related bugs.

4.4. I get lots of "fixme:" messages in the terminal and Wine runs a bit slow.

Ignore them. Generally speaking, a fixme message will not make much sense to someone unfamiliar with Wine development. They are for Wine developers. Also, it's important to understand that fixme messages often do not indicate a show stopping problem. Many applications will work fine even though Wine prints a few fixme messages. That said, they can still sometimes provide insight into how a particular application works (or doesn't work).

(!) If there are a very large number of these messages scrolling repeatedly, you can sometimes speed Wine up a little by turning them off altogether. You can do so by setting the WINEDEBUG environment variable to -all. For example, your command line could look something like:

WINEDEBUG=-all wine program.exe

More advanced users and programmers interested in debugging Wine should see DebugChannels and the Developer Documentation wiki pages.

4.5. ISSUE: "preloader: Warning: failed to reserve range 00000000-60000000"

http://bugs.winehq.org/show_bug.cgi?id=12516 is the bug following this issue.

This issue is appearing due to a kernel setting. cat /proc/sys/vm/mmap_min_addr as root, if it does not equal 0 then "sysctl -w vm.mmap_min_addr=0" as root can be used to temporary fix issue or for every reboot after adding the line vm.mmap_min_addr=0 to /etc/sysctl.conf can be done. Please record if you do this alteration the area Wine needs may change.

See PreloaderPageZeroProblem

5. Apple

5.1. How do I install Wine on my Mac?

If you are running Linux on your Mac, installing Wine is as simple as installing it under Linux. Simply visit the downloads page.

If you are running OS X there are no official builds yet. The main reason is that Apple X11 is badly broken, and Wine doesn't run well with it. We don't like giving users a bad impression of Wine.

But if you are truly adventurous and want to try it no matter what, you can find unofficial darwine *Intel* builds here. Its installation is simple and straightforward as any other dmg image: open it and drag its Darwine folder to your Applications folder. Be warned again that many applications do not run because of Apple's faulty X11 implementation and not because of Wine itself. DirectDraw and Direct3D applications do not run at all, but many GDI applications will run surprisingly well, including DirectSound ones. Be sure to read the MacOSX/FAQs.

Tip: Audio output will only be enabled after you run winecfg to configure it. This can be done by double-clicking "Sample WineLib Applications->winecfg.exe".

5.2. Can I use Wine on an older Mac without an Intel chip?

No, not even in Linux. Older Macs used PowerPC processors, which are incompatible with code compiled for x86 (Intel and AMD) processors unless the code is run under CPU emulation. Wine Is Not a (CPU) Emulator, nor does it include one. The Darwine project, however, is an effort to do just that.

6. Risks

6.1. Wine is malware-compatible

Just because Wine runs on Linux doesn't mean you're protected from viruses, trojans, and other forms of malware.

There are several things you can do to protect yourself:

  1. Never run executables from sites you don't trust. Infections have already happened.

  2. In web browsers and mail clients, be suspicious of links to URLs you don't understand and trust.
  3. Never run any GUI application (including Wine apps) as root. (See above. )

  4. Use a virus scanner, e.g. ClamAV is a free virus scanner you might consider using if you are worried about an infection; see also Ubuntu's notes on how to use ClamAV. No virus scanner is 100% effective, though.

  5. Consider removing the default Wine Z: drive, which maps to the unix root directory. This is only a weak defense, but it might help against some attacks. The downside to this is you won't be able to run Windows apps that aren't reachable from a Wine drive (like C: or D:), so you might have to move downloaded installers to ~/.wine/drive_c before you can run them.
  6. If you're running apps that you suspect to be infected, run them as their own Linux user or in a virtual machine.

6.2. Nautilus can delete your home directory when you empty the trash!

In some versions of Gnome (2.21.90?), if you move ~/.wine to trash, and empty the trash, everything that you can write to in your root filesystem is then deleted (including the contents of your home folder).

This is said to be fixed in Gnome 2.21.92. See https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/nautilus/+bug/188361 and https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/gnome-applets/+bug/195207

If you are logged in as root, this bug is worse, it can delete your entire hard drive.